Examine the sociological theories and patterns and trends in healthcare.

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Jessica Bascombe

Unit 7: Sociological Perspectives for Health & Social Care

P1: Explain the principal sociological perspectives

Functionalism: Perspectives view illness as a form of deviance and ill people are seen as performing a social role (sick role) if people are declared ill specific right and responsibility comes with this new role the rights associated with the sick role include:

Too be exempt from normal social obligation

To be cared for

Taking all steps to get better

Co-operating with medical staff to get better

The concept of the sick role was created by sociologist theorist Parson (1951) he had argued that individuals can adopt the “sick role” professionals such as Doctors are a key role in diagnosing illness and then defining if an individual is truly “sick” the sick has a right/obligations essentials e.g.: the sick individual has the right to not go to work, school, college or any social duties although they have the obligation to seek medical professional help and advice to then return to normal full health asap this is the way functionalist view of dealing with ill health in society it ensures the functioning of society. Parsons (1951) had also argued he saw a family as a pivotal in society that their basic functions are:

The primary socialisation if children

Stabilisation of adult personalities such as looking after the male breadwinner and nurturing adults

Marxism: Is an economic political theory by which law is considered an instrument of oppression and control and which the ruling class uses against the working class Marxism holds at its core a critical analysis of capitalism and a theory of social change the powerful and innovative analytical methods Marx introduced have influenced a broad range of disciplines Marxism was created by a sociologist theorist Karl Marx (1818 – 1883) he had believed that there are basically 2 social classes in capitalist societies the Bourgeoisie and the Proletariat who labour  to the owners of the production for wages Marxist believe that the capitalist Bourgeoisie exploit and abuse their power to the Proletariat and wield both economic/cultural power over them this leads to class conflict a society that is characterised as antagonism Marxist argue that the interests of the Bourgeoisie are pursued at the expense of the Proletariat Karl Marx had argued that Bourgeoisie class develop and enforce “ruling ideology” this is collection of ideas that protect and approves the interests of the ruling class Bourgeoisie e.g.: Proletariats believe that everyone can achieve success by working hard that wealth is the measure of although the Bourgeoisie believe that and the business owners and bosses are entailed to keep profits for themselves which is the ruling ideology in capitalists societies. Marxist believe that a revolution and a system of state would be better if the Bourgeoisie worked in the interests of everybody instead of only focusing on the prevailed, powerful Bourgeoisie class society functions to keep the bourgeoisie in power and the Proletariat in lower class.

Feminism: Has altered predominant perspectives in wide range of areas within western society ranging from culture to law feminist activists have campaigned for women’s legal rights (rights of property rights, voting rights) for women right bodily integrity and autonomy for abortion rights. Feminism has played important part in the way socialist since the 1960’s feminist criticise Functionalist and Marxist foe feminism has always widely applied to areas such as the family, health and care and the education system to highlight for change in the opportunities and inequalities women individuals campaign for change

Marxist Feminist: Use Marxism to explain how women are exploited and taken advantage of both in terms of social class and gender in a male dominated society women are exploited through unpaid domestic and child care work by male’s. Females are expected to meet the needs of males either looking after them or supporting them so they can go work and be breadwinner’s females are automatically given the primary responsibility of caring for children and ensuring that the home is an environment that is clean and comfortable. The housewife/mother role “culture of domesticity” is imposed on females who are apart of consciousness that’s false which limits and restricts women’s social lives, education and employment opportunities Marxist feminist believe that a structural conflict viewpoint of society that should prioritise the experiences of women.

Radical Feminist: Question the female social roles such as housewives/mother and attitudes towards women radical feminist believe that women avoid contact with men and live separate lives some radical feminist had set up women only communities in the 1960’s and the 1980’s radical feminism highlights the way in which gender equality issues, domestic violence and sexual assault this creates an influence on the women centres, rape crisis and domestic violence survives and their idea of “sisterhood” a way to challenge patriarchy. Radical feminist view society in terms of profound conflict of interests between men and women Radical feminist view society as patriarchal and organised in a way that views that ensures men remain in a dominant position in relation to women.

Liberal Feminist: Adopt the opposite of the radical approach to women’s experiences and opportunities within society liberal feminist believe achieving equality of opportunity in the society that we have rather than in changing the current social system liberal feminism perspectives has been used to explore how sexual discrimination shows a major barrier to women’s equality e.g.: the liberal feminist views quest ions the like the gender specific roles such as housewives/mothers and the breadwinner husband/father by identifying that they are the result of social expectations and biological differences between men and women the liberal feminist views has been used many times to challenge and change the social disadvantage and gender discrimination to help develop laws on sex discrimination, equal pay and to challenge ideas about women roles and relationships and place in society.

Interactionism: Is sociologist that focuses on the role of social action the ways individuals make choices and the meanings of social views of functionalism and Marxism because it assumes that people rather than big social impacts can make a difference to society and how individuals live their lives within it. Individuals who use the interactionism views believe that it’s better to look at the micro-social behaviours of individual and the care settings where social processes occur such as (care practices, doctor-patient professional relationships and labelling processes) instead of the Marco-social structures and social trends that happen at a more further distant social level interactionism view society through a “micro-scope” however structures view society through “magnifying glass”. The idea of the social action approach is based on individuals who have sufficient power and influence to shape their own destiny, career and lives e.g.: interactionism argue that individuals can make or construct their social life’s and experiences through cultural meanings and they bring different social situations socialists view professionals because it suggest that an individual problems can maybe understood by accepting their cultural views and way of life. An interactionism views has been applied to health and social care field in different ways it has been used to help practitioners understand what happens interactions that are face to face interactionism has shown how the labelling of behaviour is a social process that has different implications for the way people are treated and viewed in health and social care setting.

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Collectivism: View health and social care provision is also called “welfares” this views the state and or the government as having the main responsibility for giving care and welfare services in society and develops services and support to meet individuals needs unemployed individual’s and disabled people who have low incomes also children, elder individuals and individuals with mental problems would receive welfare support from government

The New Right: View the political more side of the philosophy than a sociological perspective it is associated with conservative political thinking mostly Thatcherism also the Republican Party in the USA the new right view has been ...

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