• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12
  13. 13
  14. 14
  15. 15
  16. 16
  17. 17
  18. 18

The Pancreas is a large gland that forms part of the Endocrine System, but the Pancreas also has an exocrine part to it.

Extracts from this document...


DISEASES AND DIAGNOSIS Task 1: The Pancreas is a large gland that forms part of the Endocrine System, but the Pancreas also has an exocrine part to it. Despite the fact that it is part of the endocrine system, most of the Pancreas is made up of it's exocrine part. It is this part of the Pancreas that releases a highly Alkali solution that is rich in enzymes into the duodenum via the Pancreatic Ducts. The reason the secretion is of a high pH is because of a high content of bicarbonate Ions and it is these which neutralises the highly acidic clyme as it is moved from the small intestine into the duodenum. The process of the breakdown of Carbohydrates, Lipids, Nucleic Acids and Proteins by Pancreatic Enzymes is called Luminal Digestion. The enzymes trypsin and chymotrypsin are both secreted in inactive form. The enzyme that causes protyrypsin to produce trypsin is called Enterokinase. The Trypsin then goes on to activate prochymotrypsin to form chymotrpysin. This process is carried out to prevent the Pancreas from digesting itself. The other pancreatic enzymes are secreted in active form. The secretion of Pancreatic enzymes is a continuous process. To promote the secretion of the enzymes, endocrine cells in the duodenum release the hormone Secretin and this hormone also promotes the secretion of a fluid, which is copious, watery and rich in bicarbonate. (Information from handout called Liver and pancreas, page 279.) The Pancreatic juice is secreted by the exocrine part of the Pancreas and this area of the Pancreas is made up of or is known to consist epithelial cells. These cells are the actual cells that perform the secretion of the pancreatic juices, which then surround the start of a duct. It is this duct that carries the juice to an Intra-lobular duct (the pancreas is made up of lobes) and these intra lobular ducts and the juice travels further into an inter lobular duct before then ending up in the main duct, which then empties the juices into the duodenum. ...read more.


One reason for this could be a problem with the starch, as the mixture in the tray wouldn't star at Blue-Black no matter how many times I tried it. Advantages & Disadvantages: I found this test to have no real advantages as any results obtained are speculative and it is extremely difficult to determine an 'end point' of Brown. To establish a proper end point would probably be to time consuming anyway. Test 2 - Plasma Amylase Changing From Blue To Clear: Step 1 - Firstly I added 10cm3 of Starch to a boiling tube *Step 2 - I then added 2 drops of Iodine to the starch to produce a Blue-Black colour Step 3 - I then added 1cm of an Amylase sample and mixed it together. Step 4 - I then started the stop clock Step 5 - I waited until the contents of the test tube became clear, stopped the clock and noted the time. *Modification - Adding the Iodine produces the Blue colour mentioned on the task sheet, however it says nothing about adding the Iodine Test 2 - Plasma Amylase Changing From Blue To Clear (Continued): Results: At first it was impossible to reach an end point of clear because there was no blue colour to start with. I then decided to modify the method slightly by adding the Iodine to obtain the blue colour. After applying this modification, I managed to carry out the experiment reasonably well, but the end point is again, open to interpretation, however I did find it easier to carry out this test instead of Test 1. Advantages & Disadvantages: The advantage of this test is that it is less time consuming then Test 1 and is also a lot easier to carry out. The test itself is pretty easy to perform. The disadvantage however is that again the end point is open to subjectivity because what some people will say is clear, others will say it is not, but it is possible to obtain a result. ...read more.


Another example of this is when testing plasma amylase, as I had to observe another colour change, where the quicker the change the higher the severity of the disease. At times I found it difficult to determine the end point. My techniques had limitations (which I have described above). However, when these tests are carried out in a clinical lab, both the tests and data that they give are more superior to mine. The main reasons for this is that the results that you obtain from the tests carried out in a clinical lab give quantitative results. There is a 'normal' range of the amount of amylase that a person that is not suffering from pancreatitis has. This range is 70- 235U/L. A person who is suffering from pancreatitis exceeds this range and their levels of amylase can go up to 250- 4200U/L. In a clinical laboratory the length of the test is longer then mine, and also the results are quantitative whereas my results are qualitative. A normal person's values for a faecal fat test are 7g/24h whereas a pancreatitis patients values of faecal fat are greater than 15g/24h and Because these are quantitative results, they are far superior to mine. Task 7: These days, there are many ways of diagnosing Pancreatitis and I have chosen to describe one of them below: Trypsin Based Tests: Several different tests have been developed that looks at the levels of trypsinogen in the plasma or urine. Immunoreactive trypsinogen (use antibodies for trypsinogen to detect the enzyme) tests are done on plasma. A 'dipstick' for testing urine for trypsinogen has now been developed.1 Trypsin in the faeces is measured by using digestion of gelatine on X- Ray film. 5g of faeces are needed and pancreatitis is diagnosed if the test is positive at a dilution of ?1/10.5 Trypsin in the faeces can also be measured using spectrophotometry. However, decreased levels are not obvious until ?95% of the pancreas has been destroyed2. ?? ?? ?? ?? Page 1 of 18 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Energy, Respiration & the Environment section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Energy, Respiration & the Environment essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Home Economics - Why is nutrition important to sports people?

    5 star(s)

    A high GI could be a bagel, measured at 72. This means following the consumption of a bagel, the concentration of glucose in the blood will rise quickly. A food with a low GI is an apple, measured at 41.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Effect of nitrate concentration on the growth of Duckweeds

    5 star(s)

    So the solutions, which allowed the most uptake of nitrates, produced a greater number of ATP and NADP molecules, and their increased synthesis aided the growth of plant tissue. In the thylakoid membranes of the plant, the light dependant part of photosynthesis took place.

  1. the Effect of Copper Ions on a

    For the first repeat at 0.010M of CuSO4 the rate of reaction was 4.0, for the second was 7.1 a difference of 3.1 and for the third 7.7. However, at 0.015M of CuSO4 the rate of reaction attained for the three repeats were 5.3, 5.3 and 5.0; similarly, at 0.020M

  2. Discuss the Advantages and Disadvantages of being Ectothermic and Endothermic in the Vertebrates.

    to the skin so that heat is lost and when they are cold the opposite occurs. Other species pant and sweat to lose heat. Ectotherms are frequently able to temporarily relax homeostasis - allowing physiological variables to fluctuate more widely than usual - so that they can survive in hostile environments.

  1. Discuss the Advantages and Disadvantages of being Ectothermic and Endothermic for Vertebrates.

    For ectotherms to remain active they must maintain a certain body temperature, enabling necessary biochemical reactions to continue. This has been perfected in some species, to such an extent that their body temperature only varies by a few degrees throughout the day; body temperature doesn't fluctuate by any more than 10?C in most ectothermic species.

  2. Investigate the effect of bile salt concentration on the digestion of milk by the ...

    of reaction actually depends on the amount of substrate present in the emulsion state, which depends on the concentration of oil. Additionally, products that have already been hydrolysed may build up at the oil-water interface and so reduce the rate of reaction.

  1. Why the Body Needs Energy? Every living cell within the ...

    * Gases diffuse from a higher pressure to a lower presser until it's an equal pressure to achieve. Diffusion * Diffusion occurs when a strong concentration of a gas comes into contract with a week concentration of the same gas therefore the dissolved gas molecules will move from a strong

  2. High Blood Pressure

    Over time, this can weaken the heart. Also, the increased pressure can damage the walls of your arteries, which can result in a blockage or cause the artery to split this is called a haemorrhage.[1] The blood pressure in your arteries varies through the day and is affected by changes

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work