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# To determine the concentration of a limewater solution

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Introduction

AS - Assessed Practical (Skills P and A) To determine the concentration of a limewater solution A balanced equation of the reaction: Ca(OH)2(aq) + 2HCl (aq) CaCl2(s) + 2H2O(l) The aim of my experiment is to determine the concentration of a limewater solution which contains approximately 1g dm-3 of calcium hydroxide by using hydrochloric acid as a reagent in a titration. Safety Procedures The following safety procedures should be notified first to ensure the safety of the person carrying out the experiment. Normal lab rules should apply throughout the experiment; goggles and lab coats should be worn to protect eyes and clothing. Hydrochloric acid can cause serious permanent damage if it comes into contact with the eyes or skin. Dilute solutions are mildly corrosive and toxic if inhaled; the experiment should be carried out in a well ventilated and well lit room. Gloves may be worn to protect skin when handling the acid. ...read more.

Middle

If it was left with its same concentration, the indicator would change colour too rapidly to control or see. 1gmol-3 can be converted into moles using the equation: Amount (moles) = Mass (g) = 1 _ = approximately 1_ = 0.01 mol dm-3 Molar Mass 74.1 100 The molar ratio of the equation is a 1:2 ratio between calcium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid, therefore two moles of acid react with the limewater. This means that the molar value for the calcium carbonate must be doubled to fit the molar ratio for the molar value of the hydrochloric acid: Amount (moles) = Mass (g) = 2 _ = approximately 2_ = 0.02 mol dm-3 Molar Mass 74.1 100 The acid should be diluted to the same amount to increase accuracy of results; therefore I plan to dilute the hydrochloric acid with concentration of 2.00 mol dm-3 by a dilution factor of 100 to 0.02 mol dm-3 The equipment I plan to use to dilute the acid is a 250ml volumetric flask ...read more.

Conclusion

Measure out 25ml of calcium hydroxide into a conical flask using a 25ml pipette by squeezing the pipette pump until the solution is past the 25ml line and then removing the pump to lower the meniscus exactly onto the line, (see Fig.2.). Add a few drops of phenolphthalein; the colour of the solution should turn pink or fuchsia coloured which will indicate a solution of high pH value. The indicator will turn colourless below pH 8 when the limewater has become fully neutralised by the hydrochloric acid. To begin the titration, set up the equipment as shown in fig.1. Fill the burette with the diluted hydrochloric acid using a funnel which must be removed at the start of the titration as it will decrease accuracy of results by increasing the volume of the acid in the burette. Place the conical flask of calcium hydroxide under the burette and on top of the white tile so that the colour change of the phenolphthalein is more evident to see. Resources Used: http://www.btinternet.com/~chemistry.diagrams/titration.htm ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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