Positive and Negative Influences on Individuals at Different Life Stages.
Booklet 2; Positive and Negative Influences on Individuals at Different Life Stages.
I am writing a booklet to raise the awareness of the positive and negative influence of socialisation. Socialisation is learning the values and behaviours of a normal group it consist of two key factors, primary socialisation and secondary socialisation these are as follows primary socialisation happens in a child’s first few years and takes place in the home and family. It teaches the child family and cultural values, beliefs and behaviours. For example to value members of the family, believe in family religion; be polite, well mannered and according to role-models.
Secondary socialisation is when the child is about five- six and has just started school where they can make new friends and they have many different influences.
The positives effects of primary socialisation are, when you grow up around your mother and father you learn how to talk, maybe different languages, to walk, ways of interacting, you may learn manners and more about your surroundings.
The negative effects of primary socialisation are, when a child is growing up, they tend to pick up on things their parents do easily and like to copy for example when a child/toddler sees their parent ironing they may get out a mini iron and copy their parents. This means that a child can pick up on the bad habits from their parents, maybe swearing or aggression towards other people. This is the negative part of primary socialisation.
The positive effects of secondary socialisation are, child at this sort of age, start learning the appropriate way of approaching other adults or children their age, they learn more about manners and other ways to show respect than what they learned when they were at home. Also a child at this age becomes more articulate and understand the difference between right and wrong also when it is time to listen and learn and the time to play.
The negative effects of secondary socialisation are, once a child has his/her group of friends and are comfortable in school, they may start to feel peer pressure from their friends to do things they may not want to do, also if a child is less fortunate and don’t have the same luxuries as others, other children pick up on this and could start making nasty comments towards him/her causing stress and low self esteem. Most children in school suffer some sort of bulling which could affect a child’s learning and concentration.
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There are many different socio-economic factors that can affect how a person develops. They can be a positive or negative effect.
- Access to services
- Peer pressure
- Family and friends
Income and expenditure.
Income means the money you earn from a job or benefits. Expenditure means the money you spend on things like, rent, bills, food, clothes, holidays.(etc) High income can have a positive effect on a child because it means him/her can have the best of everything, meaning good health, the best sort of food, well dressed. It can also mean a child can get (expensive) tutors and better education, which means that they will have a good impression when they are older and want to get jobs. But it can also mean a child won’t learn the value of money and could end up being spoilt, which is not a nice trait.
Housing and Environment.
Environment is the surroundings a person lives in, including housing. Poor housing can effect a young child because it could be over crowded which could lead to poor housing keeping and this could affect a small child’s health as they are more prone to viruses because there immune system is not strong as it could be. Later in life this could mean a child could think of this as a ‘norm’ and end up living that way themselves. Poor housing could also affect older people because it can also affect them as they could maybe have illnesses as their immune system isn’t as strong as it used to be. Bad housing could even cause illness’ to become more serious to an older person.
On the other hand good housing can affect a small child in a good way because it means the child is warm, well fed, healthy, and safe. Also good housing could mean living in a good area which also has a positive effect.
Good housing can have a positive effect on an older person because it will also mean they are warm and safe and a good community will make them feel safer and secure too.
The type of family you are born into has a massive impact on a child and maybe even effect the type of family they are in later in life, adulthood. A negative effect could be if you are born into a single parent family you could grow up only learning one perspective which could affect you later in life or maybe set boundaries in your way when it comes to making your own family. Also if your parents only believe in one sort of family for example a ‘nuclear family’ you could grow up not learning about the other different types of family which could lead to confusion when you come face to face with a completely different type of family. You could end up thinking its wrong and maybe look down on them which will make people dislike you in your later life.
A positive effect could be that if you have extended family you will learn about how you grandparents and great grandparents were brought up which will extend your knowledge and understanding into the different types of family.
Friends and Peer Pressure
In the adolescent years friends are very important to a teenager which could have positive and negative effects. A positive effect could be a teenager will meet new people and families extended the knowledge on the different types of family, also they will see how a child is brought up in the way they act and come across. A negative effect could be that a adolescent could maybe pick up on bad habits from their friends or be pushed into something they don’t want to do but feel they have to. A friend who has a bad influence can bring a teenager to have bad experiences in their life. But this helps them to learn from their mistakes.
The media has many different good and bad points to it. A positive effect could be the media keeps the public aware of everything that goes on around us. Also it boost the confidence of people. Also it makes us culturally aware and brings things to our attention like for example when they raise money for many different causes can have amazing effect on the people that really need it.
But on the negative side, the media can intrude into someone’s privacy and cause trouble for many people. Also they exaggerate or lie about things to the public just to make it their front-page or to make more people buy or watch their programmes/magazines. It has bad role models causing things like anorexia, plastic surgery/cosmetic surgery. As well as good role models.
Culture and Gender
Culture and Gender have a few similarities, for example they both suffer stereotyping. Culture include many different ways of living for example a Caribbean culture still uses beats as a form of punishment in schools which doesn’t happen in the UK culture anymore.
Living a successful life involves having to cope with change. Many of these changes are predictable, meaning we know that they are going to happen and sometime we choose to make them changes. However some changes are unpredictable mean in that they are unexpected.
Predictable life events:
- Going to school for the first time
- Moving home
- Leaving home
- Moving house
- Changing job
Unpredictable life events:
- Birth of a sibling
- Serious injury
- Qualification success
- Moving home
Positive effect of Life Events
The birth of a sibling can have a positive effect on a child because they feel important because they can care for the new infant, also because here are now more family members and the child gets to make a relationship or attachment with their younger sibling.
Going to school for the first time can positively affect a child because they will get to make new friends and enjoy them selves whilst also learning. The will understand that they are much older and being to act more mature.
Moving home can have a positive effect on an adolescent because it will allow them to socialise with others. It might give them a better chance for a better future.
Employment can positively affect on an adult because having a job means that the adult is earning money.
Redundancy can have a positive effect on an adult because they will have the opportunity to start a new job, they will be able to learn new skills and maybe try and start something of their own.
Serious illness can positively affect an old person because they know that they have support and love from there family and they are in the best hands to look after them, it may also lead to the decision as where they should live.
Leaving home can have a positive effect on a young adult because they get their independence and are able to live free without constantly being told what to do.
Marriage can positively affect an adult because they begin a new life with the partner, also they know that they have there partner to support them through everything they choose to do in life.
Divorce can have a positive effect on an older adult because they don’t have to live with the stress anymore. They can live freely without any hassle or being stopped from doing what they want.
Parenthood can positively affect an adult because they have their own child to look after, bond with and bring up in the right way so they are proud of them.
Ageing can have a positive effect on an older adult because they have more self confidence and more time for themselves as the children are older and can fend for themselves.
Negative effect of Life events
The birth of a sibling can have a negative effect on a child because they can feel rejected because their parent seems to spend more time with the infant, they could also feel that they have been replaced or their relationship between their parents are being threatened so they have to compete with there sibling.
Going to school for the first time can negatively affect a child because they will be more independent and may be a little afraid at leaving their parents and being with different people.
Moving home can have a negative effect on an adolescent because they become friends with their neighbours and it could be difficult to leave close friends, also they may have to start a new school where they have to start again.
Employment can negatively affect an adult because they have to balance work around childcare, also it can be stressful and tiring.
Redundancy can have a negative effect on an adult because they will be jobless, it could also lead to them being depressed as there is no money coming in.
Serious illness can negatively affect an old person because it can lead to permanent changes. It will also leave them worried and lower their confidence.
Leaving home can have a negative effect on a young adult because they wont have their parents by their side to help lend them things they need, they have to get use to living with out constant help.
Marriage can negatively affect an adult because there may not be full commitment between the couple. Also they have to make changes like moving house and moving away from their family
Divorce can have a negative effect on an older adult because they can be affected emotionally, they probably didn’t want the relationship to end but it was for the best.
Parenthood can negatively affect an adult because their social life will have to change and if they want to go out they will have to find some one to care for the child and it can be expensive. Adults also have to buy things for the baby such as, push chairs, cots, clothes and toys.
Ageing can have a negative effect on an older adult because they will no longer be able to have children, become sad that physical signs of ageing such as wrinkles and weight gain are shown.
Bereavement can negatively affect an adult because they feel as if they have to start life again without the person, they also experiences feelings of:
- Disbelief that the person is dead
- Sadness an depression
- Anger or guilt
Abuse can have a negative effect on a child because they have a poor attachment with their parent. They may be afraid to do or say certain things and may constantly have arguments with family members.
- Bereavement could affect an individual in the short term because they can feel lonely, isolated, depressed and pressured to stay with other. In the long term it could affect them because they become more independent.
- Marriage can affect an individual in the short term because they will have a new life and love their partner. In the long term it can affect them by having fall outs and the relationship can begin to fall.
- Leaving home can affect an individual in the short term because they feel independent and free to do whatever they want to do. In the long term it can affect them by them not being able to cope with bills and supplying things for the house.
Here's what a teacher thought of this essay
Some good work presented here regarding the various things that can impact upon someone positively and negatively. Generally examples are given to support the points made, but there are a few instances of assumptions being made, eg. people who work must have childcare issues. It is important to keep a balanced view. In terms of the structure, perhaps the negative effects could have been presented with the positive effects as one long piece of work. This would improve the structure. There are some grammar and homophone errors, so careful proof-reading is required.