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GCSE: Ethics

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  1. Kantians believe promises should always be kept even if breaking brings about benefits because if everyone starts breaking promises what is the point of making one.

    Either keep the promise and coach her friends son or not coach and save future patients lives. Certainly, the value of a promise is important but to what extent can we hold onto a promise? Promises are not meant to be broken, but if it is a life and death situation, does that promise have any value? How do promise play a part in a philosophical aspect? Kantians believe promises should always be kept even if breaking brings about benefits because if everyone starts breaking promises what is the point of making one. For example, if you promised your mom to be home at 10:00PM but you arrived fifteen minutes late because you were having too much

    • Word count: 1127
  2. In this essay I will talk about this question Do we need God to have morals? and what my opinion is about it and other religious views on this is. I will look at Christians, Buddhists, Atheists and Agnostics.

    Although some people do not agree with me as some religious people think that if someone else does something bad that they should do bad things to those people as they believe the ones who did bad in the first place should be punished. I think this depends on how they were bought up to believe in these things and sometimes people change the way they think the religion is suppose to be because it was just how they feel.

    • Word count: 1226
  3. Religion and Medical Ethics

    These methods can be used if the woman does not have a partner who is fertilising. Artificial insemination by husband (AIH) is a procedure in which the husband donates his sperm. This is then frozen until the woman next ovulates, where it is then either injected slowly into the vagina of the woman, or injected into the uterus using a catheter. AIH can be used to overcome potential problems such as thickening of female mucus, premature ejaculation or anatomical abnormalities.

    • Word count: 1768
  4. There should be no rich people as long as there is poverty in the world. Do you agree? Christians and Muslims

    Many Christians believe that rich countries should split up their money and give to the poor countries so each country is the same, they think this would help abolish poverty because everyone would be equal and could start again. They also believe this would encourage peace amongst countries as no one will be rich and powerful because they have used their riches for good. However I and some Christians would not agree with this because people think if they are brought up in riches by a wealthy family it is their money to do what they want with the money because their family has earned it and passed it down to them.

    • Word count: 1667
  5. Cultural Diary

    We are talking in English language what is a part of the English culture. We can listen to English from all over the world, and we can listen to different dialects and accents. Sometimes even the vocabulary that the people use is different. It is amazing to talk to people with different backgrounds and hear a little about their cultures and their traditions from the countries they are coming from. In the Polish school I can meet with the people that come from the country I was born and where I lived for a long time of my life.

    • Word count: 1969
  6. There Should be no rich people in the world as long as there is poverty

    with no way out but I think that if rich people give away money to help them but these tools and seeds then there is a possible way out of poverty. The majority of people in developing countries earn about �100 while people in the UK earn more than this in one week and even some people earn more than this in one day. While this is being read 450 million people are starving to death and do not know here there next meal shall come from.

    • Word count: 1047
  7. Euthanasia can never be justified

    The sanctity of life is the belief of the fact that human life is sacred and God given. Then God said, "Let us make man in our image, in our likeness, and let them rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air, over the livestock, over all the earth, and over all the creatures that move along the ground." So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them. Genesis 1:26-28 Your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit 1 Corinthians 6:19 Many churches believe that the time before death is a very meaningful and a spiritual time.

    • Word count: 1734
  8. Virtue Ethics

    You don't judge someone on who they are; you judge them on their actions. He argued that other ethical ideas and terminology are too farfetched from ordinary peoples' lives. Aristotle argued that when we do something, we do it to gain an end and the ultimate end is good. Therefore if practice our virtues we can become happy and live fulfilled lives. There are twelve moral virtues which fall between to vices. Vices are two extremes, for example there is a vice of deficiency for something and a vice of excess.

    • Word count: 1879
  9. Christian Views on Wealth & poverty

    This tells us that one view for Christian view on wealth is; it is the love of wealth that is the root cause for all kinds of evil. In Luke 12, 16-21, the parable of the selfish fool, is the story which Jesus told to a man who wanted him to split the possessions which his late father left behind for them. Jesus answered to the man, "My friend, who gave me the right to divide the property between you two?"

    • Word count: 1749
  10. RE crousework topic 9

    If you have had wealth in your ownership for one entire year at least, you must give Zakat. There have been principles that have been in existence since the birth of Islam, on have to give Zakat. A certain type of each of the following listed must be paid in a pacific percentage: * Gold * Animals * Shares * And a few others People who are not able to save any of their income expenses after they have earned it, are not needed to pay any Zakat, but they may receive Zakat from others who do have to pay Zakat.

    • Word count: 1924
  11. Death & the afterlife-A

    If they are cremated they are with their feet facing south representing their God of death-Yama. Muslims however do not believe in cremation and are buried quickly, with their head facing Mecca. Islam originated from the Middle East, where it is humid, this is why the bodies are traditionally buried quickly. To prevent the smell, and rotting. They also believe in the three stages of afterlife-heaven, hell and purgatory. Christians believe that humans have been created in Gods image. Adam and Eve where once thought to have stronger parallels to God than humans of today do.

    • Word count: 1294
  12. Outline Christian teaching on wealth and poverty

    In fact, the Methodist Church believes that everything is interdependent. They believe that men and women should be stewards, and not exploiters of its resources - whether it is material or spiritual. (What the Churches Say) Wealth is a distraction from God; we should use it to help the poor. In the Parable of the Rich Fool, Jesus entails a story about a rich farmer who was blessed with a rich harvest. Pleased with himself, this farmer spent days building bigger barns to store all his grain.

    • Word count: 1047
  13. TOK Essay: Reason and Emotion

    The reality is however that emotions play such a key role in human lives that they cannot be ignored, and for that reason both reason and emotion are, maybe not equally but still are nece00ssary in justifying a moral decision. What it comes down to in the end is the individual person that makes the moral decision. Some people are more reason oriented people and are very good at ignoring their emotions and listen to plain reason, while others are more emotional people and would believe that emotions are much more necessary in justifying moral decisions.

    • Word count: 1559
  14. Gap between reason and emotion

    Reason is a strong way of justifying moral decision as it is supported through logical rationale that deduces uncertainty of truth. Thus as this falls into logical thinking, it will form a judgment about moral situation by considering the facts, resulting in a more important way to justify moral decision. As the explanation of truth is true in accordance with fact and reality, by using reason which includes facts, it will lead us closer to truth. One example is from an ethical issue of moral relativism in the "Tragedy in Santa Monica" which underlies the debate of cultural imperialism- the invasion of a certain culture on another.

    • Word count: 1431
  15. Explain what Scholars means when they say ethical statements are no more than expressions of opinion.

    However, he accepted that there were only two types of meaningful statements that could be verified: analytical statements-which could be verified through logic or mathematics, and synthetic statements- where statements could be proven by sense perceptions. On the other hand Ayer believed that ethical statements could not be verified. This suggests that Ayer's argument is strongly in favour in ethical statements being no more than an expression of opinion, as it implies that scholars, like Ayer, think that ethical statements can not be interpreted in any other way except for expressing an opinion.

    • Word count: 1880
  16. virtue ethis

    Happiness is the ultimate goal for everyone in life. This is known as Eudaimonia. Aristotle believed that all virtues lay at the mid point between two vices that of excess and that of deficiency. Courage is one of the virtues. If you don't have enough courage then it is classed as a coward. On the other hand if there is an excess of courage then it is classed as being rashness. It is pointed out that all of us could develop the virtues, however only a small number will. To cultivate them, we must find a means of controlling our emotions and behavior towards others.

    • Word count: 1327
  17. How Plausible is Cultural Relativism

    Because there is no objective standard by which to judge which code is superior, all codes are of equal validity: it is not for a cultural relativist to judge which moral code is superior but instead to accept that both are equally applicable to their particular culture. Furthermore, it would be arrogant for somebody from one culture to judge or condemn another belief system: "cultural relativism celebrates the variety of beliefs and values held by different people."2 Ostensibly, this attitude appears to be plausible: there are many examples of cultures differing in moral views in the world.

    • Word count: 1697
  18. What is utilitarianism? What are the strengths and weaknesses of the theory?

    Some rules are necessary for us to follow in the quest to maximise happiness. However, this poses the problem of what should the rule utilitarianism do when the rule will produce a great amount of unhappiness, such as sometimes telling the truth isn't the right thing to do as it will cause great unhappiness to others. Finally, preference utilitarianism takes into account the preferences of the individual. It aims for the satisfaction of people's preferences rather than aiming to achieve the greatest balance of pleasure and pain. This is easier to manage than classical utilitarianism since it is easier to calculate.

    • Word count: 1702
  19. "Describe and evaluate Emotivism, showing knowledge of its key thinkers and critics?"

    It is considered non cognitive, which means that a factual truth claim is not expressed. It is a view that is hostile to Meta - physics and the majority of theology of which we are familiar with. Logical positivism resolves around the idea of a type of verification to verify how much meaning a statement has. The theory highlights the facts that Meta - physical statements are meaningful, and that scientific knowledge in essence, is the only kind of factual knowledge. These are the fundamental principles surrounding logical positivism, however there is another theory which is also familiarised with Emotivism; the "boo / hurrah theory".

    • Word count: 1123
  20. With the growth of the Internet, concerns have arisen over the legal and ethical issues that surround e-commerce

    It is vital that the information provided about the company and its products and services are factual (Warholic, 2007). It's not unheard of for web masters to maintain sites for people in other countries, so international considerations come into play when we discuss the issue of intellectual property on the Web. If proper ethical procedures are not followed, the possibility exists that "trade secrets or intellectual property" could be revealed (Warholic, 2007). Part of the difficulty of using the Internet for international e-commerce is revealed in this comment: " when it comes to legal issues, laws are enacted by governments and developed through case precedents (common law)"

    • Word count: 1051
  21. "Miller's plays show is that happiness can only be achieved by making moral compromises" To what extent does this claim apply to All My Sons?

    making a moral compromise, because it would lead to the Keller family having money. This idea is also shown early on in the play by Jim - he says he would love to "help humanity on a Warner Brothers salary". This links to the idea that moral compromises have to made - in that it is more important to the characters of the play to earn money than do something more moral - in order to be happy. In the same way, a critic said that "Miller examines the morality of the man who places his narrow responsibility to his immediate family above his wider responsibility to the men who rely on the integrity of his work".

    • Word count: 1939
  22. Clarify and explain the key concepts of situational ethics

    Fletcher rejects legalistic ethics. The second theory is Antinomian ethics. Antinomian ethics is basically seen as the opposite of legalistic ethics. 'Antinomian' basically means 'against law'. This means that the ethical system is completely ignored. When making a decision, the occasion would be totally unique and it would be a matter of spontaneity. Fletcher believed it would literally be unprincipled and it would follow no course from one situation to another. Fletcher is equally critical of antinomianism as an acceptable approach to ethics, because it's unprincipled.

    • Word count: 1242
  23. In the essay "On The Rainy River," the author Tim O'Brien tells about his experiences and how his relationship with a single person had effected his life so dramatically.

    It gives you a sense than our own personal identities are built on the relationships we have with others. There are many influence out there such as our family and friends. Sometimes even groups of people such as others of our nationality and religion have a space in building our personal identities. In the essay O'Brien is faced with a conflict, a moral dilemma. He had to decide whether he was either going to go to the war and fight or was he going to run away and avoid the draft.

    • Word count: 1081
  24. Critically Compare The Use Of VIDe Decision Making Software With Traditional Ethical Approaches In Case Study Context Ethics is concerned with the fundamental principles, norms or values which lie behind particular moral

    This approach generates an obligation to do the best to maximise happiness or pleasure and minimise suffering or pain (Campbell & Higgs, 1982). To obtain the greatest good for the greatest number one has to judge each situation on its own merits. For example, in Case 102, a utilitarian approach would provide a useful vehicle (i.e. compulsory vaccine) to deal with the major meningococcal B epidemic, and minimise the outbreak of the meningitis disease for the greatest number (i.e. general public). The problem with this is that the interests of public health may conflict with the individual's choice (Seedhouse, 1998).

    • Word count: 1426
  25. Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that pivots around the belief that morality should be judged by consequence and the way in which an action can be deemed moral or immoral

    Utilitarianism is a version of moral philosophy, initiated by Jeremy Bentham and refined and popularised by John Stuart Mill, which, true to its etymology, is concerned above all with the usefulness of human activity. Utilitarianism has been one of the most influential of ethical theories, and the one most widely used in ordinary 'common-sense' decisions. Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) argued that an action should be judged, not simply on the happiness it appeared to offer the person who performed it, but according to its ability to benefit everyone involved.

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Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • "Describe and evaluate Emotivism, showing knowledge of its key thinkers and critics?"

    "In conclusion, Emotivism is a theory where moral judgements are used to express our emotions. Many philosophers feel differently about why we make moral statements, and in essence a statement is not meaningful, unless it can be verified by our sense perceptions. By analysing the views and opinions of the philosophers, a sound and concise evaluation has been produced."

  • What are the main features of classical utilitarianism? Assess the strengths and weaknesses of classical utilitarianism.

    "The whole aim of utilitarianism is to produce the greatest good for the greatest number and it is true that the majority of pleasure is followed. This is a suitable conclusion in many situations but we have to consider whether this is always a good thing. W.D.Ross considered the duties he thought should be put beside happiness such as fidelity, justice, beneficence, self-improvement and nonmalificence. It is also not always beneficial to have constant majority rule as this excludes many minorities such as pressure groups like Greenpeace or previously the Suffragettes. It also excludes disabled people and could lead to eugenics as initiated by Hitler as he ethnically cleansed Germany of all Jews and other minorities. Hannah Fleming L6E 6.10.03"

  • Explain and discuss one critique of the link between religion and morality

    "In conclusion it is clear that Professor Chung has a strong argument against the link between religion and morality. He points out on more than one occasion that religious moral codes are not only impractical and often lead to immoral acts, but are self contradicting and often ignored by religious believers. Moreover he also points out that a person does not have to be religious to be moral, and therefore how can religion shape morality if some people are not religious but still moral. This clearly shows that morality comes from human nature and not religion, and therefore his argument is very effective, and in my opinion disproves the link of morality and religion."

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