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Find out how much acid there is in a solution

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Planning 11. a) Identifies and defines a question or problem and devices a practical procedure that is comprehensive and coherent to respond to the question or problem; describes fine detail about the procedure. > Aim My aim is to find out how much acid there is in a solution. I have been provided with a sample of sulphuric acid solution which has a concentration between 0.05 and 0.15 mol dm��. I will need to find its accurate concentration by carrying out a quantitative analysis known as titration. > What is titration? A titration is a quantitative analysis which can allow you to determine the precise end-point of a reaction. This is when two solutions are reacted together. One solution of known concentration is placed in the burette. The second solution is placed in the conical flask. An indicator is involved depending on how strong or weak the acid or alkali is. The solution in the burette is run into the conical flask just enough until the reaction is complete. This can be indicated by the change in appearance of the solution. > Apparatus * Beaker(s) (100cm�) * Balance * Spatula * Anhydrous Sodium Carbonate (2.65g) * Distilled Water * Glass Rod * Funnel * Volumetric Flask (250cm�) (class B) * Rubber or Plastic bung * Burette (class B) * White Tile * Small Funnel * Sulphuric Acid * Conical Flask (250cm�) (class B) * Pipette (25ml) (class B) * Pipette Filter * Methyl Orange Indicator * Lab Coat * Goggles * Gloves > Method Making the Solution * Direct Weighing Version * Firstly, turn on the balance. Make sure the surface of the balance is clean. * Place the empty beaker on the balance and record it's mass. * Press the Reset or Tare button. Now the balance should read zero. * Use the spatula to carefully add 2.65g of Sodium Carbonate into the beaker. ...read more.

Middle

This will be indicated by the meniscus on the calibration line. The error will be 0.2cm� or 0.08% Pipette (Class B) When a 25cm� is pipette is used correctly it will have an error of 0.06cm� or 0.24% Error � 100 Percentage Error = Actual Reading * In this experiment I will be using 2.65g of Sodium Carbonate. It has an experimental error of �0.005g 0.005 � 100 Percentage Error = 2.65 Percentage Error = 0.189% * Here is the calculation which shows the number of moles of Sodium Carbonate Na2CO3 Na = 23 Ar � (2) = 46 C = 12 Ar = 12 O = 16 Ar � (3) = 48 46 + 12 + 48 = 106 Mr Moles (mol) = Mass (g) � Molar Mass (Mr) = 2.65 � 106 = 0.025 mol * All of the apparatus which are involved in this experiment must be checked that they are not damaged, furthermore they will be thoroughly cleaned and rinsed with the distilled water to get rid of any dirt or unknown liquids. This will reduce the possibilities of experimental errors and will help in giving more accurate set of results. * When making the solution of Sodium Carbonate it is important to add small quantities from the spatula as it will prevent the risk of exceeding over the required value. This method will be quite effective and reliable. * When the Sodium Carbonate crystals have been thoroughly dissolved in the beaker, it is important to rinse out the glass rod in the beaker with some distilled water to wash away any leftover Sodium Carbonate. * When transferring the Sodium Carbonate solution from the beaker into the volumetric flask, it is important to use a funnel and the particular pouring technique; this is when the glass rod is held against the beaker for the solution to flow straight into the burette. ...read more.

Conclusion

* Harmful-Substances which are similar to toxic but are less dangerous. Potential Health Issues * Inhalation May cause irritation in the respiratory system. Some of the symptoms include coughing, sore throat, laboured breathing and chest pains. * Ingestion May cause irritation in the Gastro-Internal Track. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. * Skin Contact May cause mild irritation and slight redness. * Eye Contact May cause mild irritation and slight redness. Handling and Storage * Methyl Orange Indicator must be stored in a tightly stored container. * It must be kept in a cool, dry and ventilated area. * It must be protected from any physical damage, direct sunlight and freezing. * The containers of this certain solutions may still be hazardous when empty as the chemical residue still remains. * All warnings and precautions stated for this product must carefully be observed and followed. In the event of an accident... * The area of leak or spill must be ventilated. * Sensible protective equipment must be used to clean up the spills. * The liquid must be recovered to prevent any further damage. * Collect liquid in an appropriate container or absorb with an insert materials. E.g. Vermiculite or Dry Sand. * Do not use combustible materials such as saw dust. Exposure Controls and Personal Protection * Ventilation System A dilution ventilation is a satisfactory health hazard for this solution. In the case of discomfort to the worker a local exhaust system should be considered. * Skin Protection Protective gloves must be worn at all times when handling this chemical. * Eye Protection Safety goggles must be worn at all times. First Aid * Eye or Skin Contact In the case of contact, immediately wash eyes or skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Remove contaminated clothing. Seek medical attention immediately. * Ingestion If swallowed do not induce vomiting. Have large amounts of water and seek immediate medical attention. * Inhalation If inhaled, go out in fresh air. Immediately seek medical attention if having trouble in breathing. ...read more.

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