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# Handling Experiments,Observations and Data

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Handling Experimental observations and data. Title: The no. of moles of water crystallization in a hydrated salt, Aim: To determine the water of crystallization in the hydrated salt, copper sulphate. Apparatus: electronic balance, crucible, tongs, Bunsen burner, wire gauze, tripod stand, pipe - clay triangle, spatula, . Theory: To determine the number of moles of water of crystallization in a hydrated salt, a small amount of the hydrated salt is taken, heated gently and then heated strongly to remove the water of crystallization. Procedure: 1. Take a clean and dry beaker and weigh it out accurately in an electronic balance. 2. Weigh out accurately 2.5 g of hydrated copper sulphate crystals in the crucible. ...read more.

Middle

* In the space of about two minutes the blue colour of the copper sulphate crystals starts fading. * After time clumps of the substance is formed. * The substance is heated strongly and most of the crystals are decolourized to white now. * A minute or so passes and all of the copper sulphate crystals are completely white. Controlled Variables: 2.5g of hydrated copper sulphate Weight of beaker 50g Calculations Weight of hydrated copper sulphate + beaker before heating = 52.50g Weight of copper sulphate + beaker after heating = 51.44g Weight of water evaporated from hydrated copper sulphate = 52.5- 51.44 = 1.06g Weight of hydrated copper sulphate = 2.5g Weight of anhydrous copper sulphate = 2.5 - 1.06 = 1.44g R.M.M of water = (2�1) ...read more.

Conclusion

=159.5g No. of moles of water incorporated into 159.5g of anhydrous copper sulphate = 0.04 � 159.5 = 6.38g Anomalous Result: Copper sulphate has five (5) moles of water but after heating I found it to have 6.38g. This was caused by experimental mistakes. Sources of Error I did not heat the substance gently properly. I let the spatula touch the substance. Ways to Improve Experimental Results I could improve my experimental result but fix the way I gentle heat the substance by waving it over the flame to make sure that all the water particles are evaporated out of the anhydrous copper sulphate. Conclusion The water crystallization in 2.5g of copper sulphate was evaporated by firstly being heated gently and then strongly. ...read more.

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## Here's what a star student thought of this essay

4 star(s)

### Response to the question

The response to the question is done well. The candidate outlines the experiment accurately and considers a variety of things that may have affected the experiment. To improve they should explain the science behind the experiment more such as the ...

### Response to the question

The response to the question is done well. The candidate outlines the experiment accurately and considers a variety of things that may have affected the experiment. To improve they should explain the science behind the experiment more such as the hydrogen bonding or have included chemical reactions to show their understanding.

### Level of analysis

The candidate clearly states their aims and the method of the experiment well. They also include weights and the variables to be kept constant although it is not noted why this is. Table of results is consistent with decimal places. Observations are recorded accurately and succinctly. The workings out are clear and correct. The candidate could have pointed out more sources of error to show a greater understanding of their result. They suggest some improvements but not to a high level, they should include more detail. The conclusion was not really needed in this instance as it just stated things already said.

### Quality of writing

Some minor punctuation errors in places with commas that are not needed. List of apparatus not ordered tidily. Minor grammatical errors seen in places. Otherwise spelling, grammar and punctuation mostly okay.

Reviewed by skatealexia 25/07/2012

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