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# Rates of reaction between hydrochloric acid and magnesium

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Introduction The question I am investigating is the rate of reaction when hydrochloric acid reacts with magnesium. Background The rate of a reaction can be measured by the rate at which a reactant is used up, or the rate at which a product is formed. In other words measuring how quickly a reaction is progressing. It involves measuring how much of the reactants are being used up or how much of the products are formed in a certain amount of time. Rate of Reaction = Change in amount of reactants/products Time taken The rate of reaction is measured by cm�/s (centimetres per second) or g/s (grams per second). Factors which affect the rate of reaction are temperature, surface area, catalysts and concentration. Factor How it affects the Rate of Reaction Temperature When the temperature increases the energy of the reactant particles rise. This leads to a large number of reactants having enough energy to react. The reactant particles will also move more quickly so the collision frequency increases. Surface Area If the surface area increases the rate of reaction also increases. When solid reactants (at least one reactant must be a solid) are involved, the reactions will only occur on the surface. Increasing the surface area of the solids means that more reactants are exposed and more successful collisions will happen in the same amount of time. Catalysts A Catalyst will lower the activation energy of the reaction. Therefore more reactant particles will have enough energy to react. Consequently the number of successful collisions increases. ...read more.

Middle

I have considered using measuring the volume of gas product produced at regular intervals. The reason being is that you can tell how fast it goes at the beginning, middle and end. You can also get a more accurate picture. If we collect hydrogen over a period of time, we can get a better rate of reaction. This is because we measure it at closer time intervals. We are not using the "measuring the change in the mass of the reactants at regular intervals" as the mass of hydrogen gas is very small. Method How this method works Timing how long it takes for a solution to turn cloudy This is for reactions that produce an insoluble solid. In this method we have to mix the liquids in beaker and start the timer. We have to stop the timer when we can no longer see the cross on the paper through the solution. Measuring the volume of gas product produced In order to do this I have to record the volume at regular intervals (e.g. every 30 seconds). Measuring the change in the mass of the reactants at regular intervals Record the mass at regular intervals such as every 60 seconds. Timing how long it takes for a small amount of solid reactants to disappear Mix the solid and liquid in the beaker and start the timer. Stop the timer when I can no longer see the solid. ...read more.

Conclusion

We also tried to use 2cm ribbon of magnesium but it reacted too quickly with both 5 mol and 2 mol. So we decided to use 3cm. on the same hand if the magnesium ribbon were to rust (become covered with magnesium oxide), we would have used sand paper to remove the rust. However the magnesium did not rust for the preliminary test or the real experiment. If it did rust our results would have been affected as another product would have been added to the reaction. The tables below are the working out my group and I had to do in order to work out the volume of water needed for our experiments - both preliminary and real. My lines of best fit were simple to draw as the points are close to it making my experiment dependable. Most of my error bars were small meaning that my results were fairly accurate. Nevertheless, one thing our group noticed was the fact that the reacted mixture had become hot (temperature), this may have affected my results and made them a little unreliable. In the future, if I were to repeat the experiment, I would use a water bath to cool the mixture down. Justification of concentrations The set concentrations I have chosen are: 2 mol mol/dm�, 1.75 mol/dm�, 1.5 mol/dm�, 1.25 mol/dm�, 1 mol/dm�, 0.75 mol/dm� and 0.5 mol/dm�. These concentrations are high enough and the right speed to react with the magnesium. ?? ?? ?? ?? Candidate Name: Tejaswini Nareshkumar Candidate Number: 5160 Centre Number: 13317 - 1 - ...read more.

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3 star(s)

This is a well written and researched piece of scientific writing. It would be a four or five star investigation if it was complete. In addition to what is included; all the data collected with graphs, analysis and evaluation needs to be written about. Improvements to the method and a discussion of the apparatus precision should also be included. Improvements have been suggested throughout.

Marked by teacher Cornelia Bruce 17/04/2013

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