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International Baccalaureate: Anthropology

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  1. Evaluate social identity theory, making reference to relevant studies.

    He separated the boys into two groups based upon their preference to one of the two paintings. Tajifel was testing here perception and perceived-superiority of the in-group compared to the out-group people. Tajifel's data, which was that people award more money to in-group people than out-group people demonstrate that inter-group discrimination is prevalent; and that the mere act of categorization based merely on superficial factors such as a painting is sufficient to cause conflict and discrimination. Yet, why does this study support the theory of social identity? This study is a hallmark of the theory because the findings demonstrate the human behaviour of favouring his or her own "in-group," which was in this case awarding more money to themselves, over the "out-group," in which less money was awarded.

    • Word count: 1262
  2. Both Adam Smith and Jean-Jacque Rousseau desire to understand the correlation between human nature, the progress of society, and societys condition in modernity.

    interest should make him count on the help of his kind....this is how men...have acquired some...idea of mutual engagements and of the advantage of fulfilling them (Rousseau,163). Men discovered early that mutual benefit is the product of reciprocal desires for self-preservation; thus becoming the foundation upon which division of labor and trade developed. Reciprocal self-interest is an unfailing bargaining chip humans depend on when trading with each other; men do not depend on goodwill, but hold each other accountable to mutual self-preservation while considering personal survival above all else.

    • Word count: 1246
  3. Maasai Culture- Power, authority and influence

    distinguished as a form of social power based on prestige, it takes origin when a majority is being influenced to accept the beliefs or behaviour of a minority. This nation demonstrates a diverse culture and lifestyle that reflects its liberal democratic traditions and values, geographic closeness to the Asia-Pacific region and the social and cultural influences of the millions of migrants who have settled in Australia, shaping and manipulating the embodiment of this contemporary society today. Age Sets- power and authority Power and authority can be guns and knives, it may be the ability to read and write, a fist,

    • Word count: 1350
  4. Apply Functionalism and Structuralism to the Trobriander Islanders Economy

    Malinowski argued against evolution saying that there is a certain order and organization to every cultural system. His main argument was that societies should be looked at in their own light, and not comparatively to other societies. We can then say that it is a particularist theory and also that Malinowski made a theoretical paradigm shift away from the evolutionistic perspective of universalism and ethnocentrism (with the help of Boas' ethical paradigm looking at a society ethnocentrically and comparatively (method) was r****t), by rejecting the evolutionist perspective in all his research. And he also made a methodical paradigm shift introducing the concept of participant observation.

    • Word count: 1700
  5. Cognitive Anthropology and Structuralism

    It was an effort to get at organizing principles that lie underneath the behaviour within a society, and trying to understand the natives categories. In itself, trying to get the natives view wasn't new, but making an effort to rule out the ethnographer's categories was new. Several anthropologist advanced a movement based on this idea and called it ethnoscience that used cognitive anthropology for its theory. They were very interested in the understanding of the thoughts of societies anthropologically. A way to elicit information and not place it in preconceived categories of the ethnographer was sought out.

    • Word count: 1083
  6. Plan for an investigation in to the link between gender and life expectancy in the Czech Republic.

    (certainty) -This variable is changed as each observed person changes, and when done so will affect the lifespan. This variable is a factor of observation as explained in the Research Question. Refer to step 5a/5b. Dependent: Lifespan (Years +- 0.5) (uncertainty) -This variable is dependent on the chosen gender. A change in gender will affect this variable, and since we are differentiating between the ranges of various lifespan according to their genders, it will ultimately affect the data. Refer to step 5a/5b. Controlled: Location (Cemetery) -This variable must stay the same throughout the experiment.

    • Word count: 526
  7. We are intolerant of people who are different. Is this an accurate claim?

    In some cases, globalization, which here refers to more interaction between people across borders, might help, too. Many people believe that we are intolerant of different people because of humans' inherent sense of unease and sometimes even superiority over those from different backgrounds and beliefs. Since the historical times, there has been a plethora of dispute stemming from people's lack of tolerance for their divergence in their roots such as race and religion. Germany's holocaust under the reign of Adolf Hitler during World War Two is an example of a certain race's sense of superiority over the other races, in this case Aryan over Jews, leading to the massacre of more than 30 millions Jews in total.

    • Word count: 916
  8. While each Greek meal is fresh and inviting, it is also a trip back through Greece's history. Because Greek food has had such a long living history, it has made its way all around the world and educated people on not just what they are eating, but also ho

    Crusty bread which is consumed with a little extra virgin olive oil is a common accompaniment to food. Besides that, olives are also eaten whole. The regular eaten type is the plump kalamata olive that is added to stews and salads. As we know, Greece is mainly surrounded by sea, so they eat fish and shellfish usually. The prevalent types of fish and shellfish include tuna, mullet, bass, halibut, swordfish, anchovies, sardines, shrimp, octopus, squid and mussels. This fish and seafood is eaten in different ways: grilled and seasoned with garlic and lemon juice, baked with yogurt and herbs; cooked in rich tomato sauce, added to soups; or served cold as a side dish.

    • Word count: 5141
  9. For my research I interviewed a person from Costa Rica. I found that Costa Rican culture is heavily influenced by Spanish culture. In addition to this, I also interviewed my grandmother who is an Indian Gujarati woman. Both the interviews helped me list t

    Due to modernization, the lifestyle and the food habits slightly change. For instance, this was shown when Alejandro said that he has not touched a plate of rice and beans all day because he does not have enough time due to work and other responsibilities. His life is very fast paced now since he has moved to the United States and as a result he tends to eat a bit more pre-cooked meals, which he would never have eaten back in Costa Rica. There is no specific symbolic meaning for meaning of food to the Costa Ricans.

    • Word count: 3438
  10. Investigating food and culture in Costa Rica

    He has no choice but tends to choose more pre-cooked meals which he would never have eaten in his home country. However, in a Costa Rica way of eating, people eat beans and rice almost every day and encourage eating with company. When being asked about any symbolic meanings of food known to his culture, Alejandro said, "I cannot really think of something that is seen as "symbolic" but there are certain foods that remind me of certain holidays such as homemade relleno (stuffing)

    • Word count: 4516
  11. Memorable events in Malaysian History and Culture.

    The May 13 Incident is a term for the Sino-Malay sectarian violences in Kuala Lumpur (then part of the state of Selangor), Malaysia, which began on May 13, 1969. The riots led to a declaration of a state of national emergency and suspension of Parliament by the Malaysian government? August 31, 1999, a date which made the whole world to know about Malaysia because of the opening of the tallest building in the world which is known as Kuala Lumpur City Center(KLCC)

    • Word count: 5922
  12. I have read the Social Organization of Masculinity, written by Connell, R.W, and the Pigskin, Patriarchy, and Pain, written by Don Sabo in my American Studies class. After reading both articles, I think they are both talking in the same topics that are th

    (Connell) He describes gender as the active manner that changes through out history. From that, he argues about the patriarchy, in which men will control the financial, political and symbolic gain most of the time. Therefore, the combination between the patriarchy and masculinity idea gives male more dominant and competitive. In our society, they will tend to create more violence over other. In the Pigskin, Patriarchy, and Pain article, Sabo used the football as a specific example to demonstrate the pain principle among the man society. He told us the stories about his early age when he wanted to try out the football at his school.

    • Word count: 998
  13. Free essay

    To what extent do individuals script their own lives and to what extent are their lives scripted by social forces?

    From the family, individuals gain a social class, the importance of the family and culture. Quite often, a child's family structure has an effect over the level of importance that is given to the bond of marriage and the establishment of a family. This therefore is influential over the individuals' life script in terms of the development of their own family. Children who are brought up in conformist, traditional families are more likely to hold marriage in greater esteem to those who are from families affected by divorce or those raised by one parent. Therefore the structure of a child's family can have an indirect affect over their adolescent and adult life.

    • Word count: 896
  14. Archaeology. The two major divisions of archaeology are pre-historic and historic. The major dividing line between these two is the period before and after written history.

    With having no written evidence of the prehistoric past, we determine who specific people were or names or places. Archaeologists will speak in terms of cultures. Because there is no written evidence Archaeologists must rely entirely on material remains alone for evidence of past times. For example, the set of hominid footprints found in hardened volcanic ash. This was crucial evidence that hominids walked upright 3.6 million years ago. Prehistoric Archaeology consists of the Stone Age (Paleolithic Period) in which the stone tools were being used and made by humans.

    • Word count: 477
  15. My Own Culture - growing up in Malay culture.

    The grip of hands is gentler and the shaking less vigorous than in the Western style. Additionally, when a younger person shakes hands with an elder, be it a parent, a teacher or someone else, the younger person also bows down during the handshake, and kisses the upper side of the right hand of the older person. This is to show respect to the elder person. During occasions such as 'Hari Raya' the younger persons in a family may also go down on to the knees and then carry out this handshake as just described. This, however, happens only when the elders are seated.

    • Word count: 3159
  16. Japan No More - Japanese Culture and the Influence of Western festivals.

    While western clothes has become normality in Japan some group of people have taken the mimicking a little too far and it is simply weird. Just look at the streets of Harajuku and Shibuya in Tokyo. The fashion in those two districts is simply astonishing and people are just "creative" and "unique". During my visit in Tokyo, I encountered many people who I could not keep my eyes off. There were the Lolita people who dressed them self in clothes influenced from the Victorian era yet also adding the gothic taste into it, while others dressed like 18th century aristocratic women like Marie Antoinette-all frilly and lacy with the parasol.

    • Word count: 2004
  17. What has made Cannibalism exist for such a long time?

    Gastronomic cannibalism is nonfunerary, nonstarvation cannibalism which is a routine cannibalism for food. (5) Medicinal cannibalism is the consumption of human organs such as blood, bone, or dried tissue for medicinal purposes. (6) s******c cannibalism is the killing and eating of individuals out of disservice or psychopathological motives. In exocannibalism, gastronomic cannibalism, and s******c cannibalism, the victims are murdered before being eaten; in endocannibalism, starvation cannibalism, and medicinal cannibalism, they are not. (Ed. Solomon H. Katz,2003)There is another cannibalism behaviour called necro-cannibalism- A separate ethical distinction can be made between killing a human for food (homicidal cannibalism)

    • Word count: 2117
  18. Status of women in business in Slovakia. While more than 37 percent of managerial positions in top companies are filled by women, they occupy only 15 percent of board positions, and just 10 percent of company boards are chaired by women

    The European Union is now expected to adopt quotas which will lead to higher representation by women on boards of directors and in parliament, Ivana Jan�kov� Stavrovsk�, the press attach� of the Information Agency of the European Union in Slovakia, told the SITA newswire. "Personally, I am not a great fan of quotas," Reding said. "However, I like the results they bring." Not all countries are open to using such quotas. Olga Pietruchov� from the Department of Gender Equality and Equal Opportunities of the Labour Ministry says that in some jobs having quotas would be very problematic.

    • Word count: 1014
  19. Examine the nature of the Dreaming and how it is inextricably connected with the land

    Aboriginal definition of dreaming is the spirituality is the belief and the feeling within yourself that allows you to become part of the whole environment around you, not the built environment, but the natural environment. Birth, life and death are all part of it, and you welcome each. To the Aboriginal people, the land is not dead. It is alive with power and the Ancestors who live in it. The land is the ancestors, and, as long as the land lives, so do the ancestors.

    • Word count: 849
  20. Teenage Suicide in the United States

    because of the differences in history and culture of these continents. Suicide amongst teenagers also affects a wide range of groups in different ways such as in boys and girls, Native Americans, Hispanics, and gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and transgender. However, there are many various reasons as to why teenagers do attempt suicide mental disorders, emotional, environmental, and even biological factors. Even though there are many reasons teenagers attempt suicide, it can still be prevented if issues such as mental disorders are treated, and having close members aware of changes that could lead to suicide ideation, and preventing the availability of certain dangerous substances.

    • Word count: 7336
  21. Mitigating People Wildlife Conflict. Human-wildlife conflict (HWC) is also fast becoming a critical threat to the survival of many globally endangered species, in particular to large and rare mammals such as the Sumatran tiger and the Asian lion,

    Human-wildlife conflicts also undermine human welfare, health and safety, and have economic and social costs. Nuisance encounters with small animals, exposure to zoonotic diseases, physical injury or even death caused by large predators' attacks have high financial costs for individuals and society in the form of medical treatments to cure and prevent infections transmitted from animals through human contact. Humans can be economically affected through destruction and damage to property and infrastructure (e.g. agricultural crops, orchards, grain stores, water installation, fencing, pipes), livestock depredation, transmission of domestic animal diseases, such as foot and mouth. Negative social impacts include missed school and work, additional labour costs, loss of sleep, fear, restriction of travel or loss of pets.

    • Word count: 6074
  22. Cahokia was the largest city in USA before Columbus arrived. Its decline is mostly due to the lack of raw materials and climate changes.

    Monk's Mound is the biggest of the mounds and it is the most impressive monument in this unknown civilization. They also had logs where people used to mark a calendar, showing how knowledgeable the habitants were. Researchers have concluded that it had been ruled as a theocracy, or government under the control of a Church or state-sponsored religion. Nevertheless, authority was fairly decentralized and based more on respect. Cahokia was built by Indians that planned the architecture of the city really thoroughly.

    • Word count: 494
  23. The Effect of the Taliban upon Women in Society

    Primarily, the first law aimed only at women was "You will stay inside your homes at all times. It is not proper for women to wander aimlessly about the streets. If you go outside, you must be accompanied by a mahram, a male relative" (Hosseini 270). The second law aimed only at women was "You will not, under any circumstance, show your face. You will cover with Burqa when outside" (Hosseini 270). These are two laws that clearly demonstrate the inequality between men and women. An example of this can be found in the book on page 313, when Laila leaves her home unaccompanied by a male relative to visit Aziza in the orphanage.

    • Word count: 924
  24. Inter cultural communcation is the process of sending and receiving messages between people of different cultural background.

    How culture is learned * Listening to advice from family members, relatives, and elderly people (direct). * Also by observing other people's behaviour (indirect) Recognizing Cultural Differences 1. Social values * Formal rules of etiquette (exp table manners) are explicit and well defined. * Informal rules are learned through observation and imitation. Exp (i) attitudes towards work and success - do they emphasize hard work and material success? (ii) Roles and status - the way top management is addressed eg Mr Roberts or using title 'president' 'manager' (iii) Use of manners - exp 'How was your weekend?'

    • Word count: 1124
  25. Free essay

    Does the portrayal of thin models in fashion advertisements promote body consciousness amongst Singaporean teenage girls?

    In the present, according to Ford modeling agency, on of the biggest modeling agencies in fashion, the minimum height requirement now being 5 feet 9 inches tall as well as having specific measurements for their bust, waist and hips, all of which fall in the 'small' range. Their body also has to be well-toned and proportioned. Symmetrical features are also a must and models have to have a certain "look" that is currently in fashion as determined by the modeling industry.

    • Word count: 1494

Why do some tribes have coming of age ceremonies? Why is dance more important in some cultures than others? IB Anthropology is the comparative study of human cultures and societies and gives the student a great insight into a broad range of communities around the world and the ideas and themes by which they can be understood.

During the course you'll be covering such issues as war, inequality, human rights and poverty, amongst many others. You'll be looking at how societies develop and change and how things like family and kinship, belief systems and tradition affect cultures and the way they relate with other cultural systems. As a social science, Anthropology also involves the collection and analysis of data and its interpretation and you'll spend time learning how to develop your own experimental and observational skills. Assessment is done both internally and externally and you'll need to hone your examination skills. One paper is based on an unseen text which will require you to apply the theories and principles you have learnt. Marked by Teachers has a wealth of essay answers for IB Anthropology which will help you understand how good answers are planned and written.


Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Compare and contrast how three poets explore the theme of childhood.

    "In conclusion the three poets presented the childhood all in a very different situation way, but the same key point. All of them had some related features as well as contrasting. The language has relate structure of the use of comparisons in piano and my parents kept me from children who were rough while fanthorpe's language is completely contrast to the other two poems. By Eve"

  • Outline and evaluate cross-cultural studies of gender role.

    "In conclusion, cross cultural studies help us to establish whether nature or nurture has the greater influence over gender roles. Both Mead and Young's studies imply that nurture and social influences have a greater influence on gender roles, however evidence from William and Best lies on the nature side of the debate by indicating that our biology is more dominant."

  • Discuss Free Speech in China Compared to the UK

    "To conclude, the aforementioned points outline the degree to which I believe people in China have freedom of speech. I believe that the internet and the media are the greatest limitations to the free speech of Chinese people, and comparatively to the UK, Chinese people have far less freedom of speech. However, as I have also outlined, the impact that this has on freedom of speech is not as great as it may appear; the affects are mainly felt by metropolitan people. There are still many people in China that do not have access to the internet, media legislation only affects a small, working minority, and comparatively other countries have not seen political or social stability through executing their freedom of speech. In any case, freedom of speech is limited in all countries, but in a much more subtle way. The Chinese Communist Party are trying to stabilize their country and keep the citizens happy which, I believe, has taken place. For these reasons I have spoken about in my short discussion, I believe that the breakdown of freedom of speech, although existing, only impacts particular segments of society at a time and overall consequences have been positive; it would be false to say that people in China today have no freedom of speech."

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