Approximate decreasing polarity of liquids:
· Ethanoic acid
· Distilled water
· Ethyl acetate
Relating compounds structures and the deflection of its jet when a charged was induced, let know relatively the liquids polarity. Mostly every of the liquids contain hydrocarbons and oxygen, except Heptane, which ended to be a non-polar covalent compound. Compounds with an electronegative difference between the lower and higher number, lower of 1.3 ends to be a covalent compound. Covalent compounds are bonding which share one or more pairs of electrons and the atoms are attracted to the nucleus, which means that neither atom can dominate the other, therefore the electrons are shared equally between the, nut in Heptane as C is more electronegative than H, all e goes to C making them (H) to cancel each other. In the other hand, when compounds are polar is in cause of the unequal sharing because elements have greater electron affinity/ electro negativity than others gain attraction between their bonds and electrons.
In this experiment we see how the rest of the liquids contain Oxygen atoms, mostly with its lone pairs, and high elecrtonegatiity, which made the atoms slightly negative charged; even as, Hydrogen and Carbon atoms with lower electronegativity than O creating a positive charge. So, when the ruler with the negative charge was getting closer into the jet of each liquid, they changed position and exerted a turning effect, so that the negative charges (oxygen in compounds, and rubbing ruler/rod) wouldn’t repel with each other and therefore the positive charges lined up and create an effect of attraction with the negative charge of ruler, called a dipole moment.
The polarity ranking of functional groups says that acids are the second ones most polar after amides , which explains that these compounds places this polarity because of H bonding and the presence of two O atoms. So it explains the rank of Ethanoic acid as the most polar of all.