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Fire - stages of a fire, fire resistance of different building materials, construction to resist fire.

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Fire Technology CONTENTS 1. Introduction 4 1.1. Fire Protection 6 1.2. Compartment Fire Development 8 1.3. Stages of Fire & Corresponding BS 476 Standards 11 1.4. NFPA Fire Safety Concept Tree 13 2. Fire Terminology 14 2.1. Fire resistance 14 2.2. Compartmentation 14 2.3. Fire precautions 16 2.4. Fire prevention 16 2.5. Fire protection 17 2.6. F.R.P. (Fire Resistance Period) 17 2.7. Fire Load 18 3. The effects of fire on materials and structure 19 3.1. Combustibility and non-combustibility 19 3.2. Non-combustible materials 20 4. The effects of fire on materials and structure 22 4.1. Combustible materials 22 5. General behaviour of materials in fire 23 5.1. Timber 23 5.2. Timber Product 23 5.3. Concrete 23 5.4. Stone 24 5.5. Plastic 24 5.6. Clay Products 24 5.7. Brick - good resistance to fire 25 5.8. Steel 25 5.9. Aluminium 26 6. Fire Protection of structure and construction 27 6.1. Active fire protection 27 6.2. Passive fire protection 27 7. Fire resisting construction - Compartmentation 28 7.1. Compartmentation 28 1. INTRODUCTION Fire Triangle (???) Fire Tetrahedron (????) 1.1. FIRE PROTECTION From the fire tetrahedron, we learnt that we could stop fire by obstructing the chain reaction(s), hence, by means of: * Reduce the fuel * Reduce the oxygen * Reduce the heat Is it possible? For the sake of fire safety in building, we have implemented measures to overcome this issue, for example: Element of Fire Triangle Method to Reduce the Element Fuel The authority had implemented rules & regulation on the use of non-combustible materials for the furniture. ...read more.


The construction can then be classified in different fire technical classifications. 2.2. COMPARTMENTATION A compartment in premises is formed by the structural enclosures, e.g. reinforced wall, FRP door, fire dampers, etc. Compartmentalization in structures, such as land-based buildings, traffic tunnels, ships, aerospace vehicles, or submarines, is the fundamental basis and aim of passive fire protection. The idea is to subdivide a structure into "fire compartments", which may contain single or multiple rooms for the purpose of limiting the spread of fire, smoke and flue gases, in order to enable the three goals of fire protection: * life safety * property protection * continuity of operations. 2.3. FIRE PRECAUTIONS Fire safety refers to precautions that are taken to prevent or reduce the likelihood of a fire that may result in death, injury, or property damage, alert those in a structure to the presence of a fire in the event one occurs, better enable those threatened by a fire to survive, or to reduce the damage caused by a fire. Fire safety measures include those that are planned during the construction of a building or implemented in structures that are already standing, and those that are taught to occupants of the building. 2.4. FIRE PREVENTION The goal of fire prevention is to educate the public to take precautions to prevent fires, and be educated about surviving them. It is a proactive method of reducing emergencies and the damage caused by them. 2.5. FIRE PROTECTION Fire protection is the study and practice of mitigating the unwanted effects of fires. ...read more.


d) The contractor's shed is not sited (i) on a cantilevered structure; or (ii) above a hoarding or covered walkway; and e) The contractor's shed is located within the boundaries of the building site and is not readily accessible to the general public. Fire Safety Requirements for Contractor's Sheds Shed Design Fire Safety Requirements Shed(s) to be certified by registered contractors Single-storey less than 230 m2 One 4.5 kg CO2 or 9-litre water type fire extinguisher at each entrance. Shed(s) to be certified by AP/RSE Structure exceeding one storey and less than 230 m2 (i) One 4.5 kg CO2 or 9-litre water type fire extinguisher at each entrance. (ii) At least one open staircase to be provided. Single-storey in excess of 230 m2 (iii) One 4.5 kg CO2 or 9-litre water type fire extinguisher at each entrance. (iv) Access for fire engine to be provided to reach 30m travel distance from the shed. Other designs; or non-compliance with Fire Safety Requirements in this table for the above structures Fire Services Department to formulate requirements on a case-by-case basis. Note : Travel distance within the shed should comply with the Code of Practice for the Provision of Means of Escape in Case of Fire 1996. 8.2. CLASS WORK For a contractor's shed with the following items, please state the fire protection requirements: Assembled by 20' containers Assembled by 20' containers G/F 1/F * The site office is to be enclosed with corrugated GI sheets * Openings at end & middle of the office ?? ?? ?? ?? 1/50 ...read more.

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