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Discuss the biology of Alzheimers disease

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Introduction

Discuss the biology of Alzheimer's disease Alzheimer's disease (AD), a form of dementia is a progressive neurodegenerative brain disorder, which involves memory and cognitive deficits as well as deterioration of intellectual functioning including language, visual spatial skills, judgment and intellectual abilities. Although the etiologies of Alzheimer's are largely unknown, researchers believe that biological factors and genetic factors contribute to AD. Firstly, there are pathological characteristics associated with the disease, including brain atrophy, neuronal cell loss in the hippocampus (Mayeux, R, 2006). Secondly, extracellular amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are believe to contribute to the development of AD. Finally, it is widely believed that genetic factors contribute significantly to AD. While at present there are no cures for AD, some second-generation drugs have the ability to slow the progression of the disease (Irons-George, 1995). However, much of the etiology of Alzheimer's still remains inconclusive. In 1907, Alois Alzheimer first discovered the neuropathological changes that are found in the brains of Alzheimer affected patients. According to Khachaturin & Radebaugh (1996), Alzheimer found clusters of proteins in the brain and also noticed brain atrophy, the shrinkage of the brain caused by neuronal death (Paladino, 1997, p.276). These observations are now known as the pathological characteristics of AD. Cooper (2003, p.101) asserts there are three main neuropathological characteristics that are associated with Alzheimer: neuronal cell loss in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, formation of twisted nerve cell fibres, known as intracellular neurofibrillary ...read more.

Middle

e.g. A percentage of 75% converts to a mark of 7.5/10. Objective/Criteria Performance Indicators Fail Pass C D HD Introduction provides context for the essay (2 points) Your introduction did not provide any context to the topic (2.5 points) Your introduction provided some context for the topic (3 points) An attempt to establish the context for the essay. Adequate explanation of the background, lacking in detail. Thesis states the position. (4 points) Introduction creates interest. Thesis clearly states the position. (5 points) Well-developed introduction engages the reader and creates interest. Contains detailed background information. Introduction previews the shape of the essay (2 points) Your introduction did not indicate, to any degree, what will be covered in the essay (2.5 points) Your introduction provides only a highly restricted outline of the main thesis and supporting ideas (3 points) Your introduction provides a restricted outline of the main thesis. Outline of the main ideas requires more detail. (4 points) Your thesis statement is relevant and supporting ideas are outlined. (5 points) Contains a relevant thesis statement, and supporting ideas are outlined to an excellent level. Use of sufficient range of relevant concepts and ideas from appropriate sources (2 points) Demonstrates minimal evidence of research. No references. (2.5 points) Demonstrates very limited research with very limited or no support material presented. (3 points) ...read more.

Conclusion

Transitional language supports the argument and aids coherency. (9 points) Paragraphs support essay structure with excellent links to the topic/thesis. Topic sentences introduce the main point of the paragraph. Excellent use of transition language identifies progression of argument and creates cohesion. Overall use and quality of language (4 points) Language use severely restricts writer's success. Some attempt at technical language. Incorrect spelling limits meaning. (5 points) Language use does not always support writer's aims. Technical language used with some success. (6.5 points) Language use supports the writer's aims. Technical language is used, with some proficiency, Spelling mostly accurate. (7.5 points) Language use effectively achieves writer's goals. Technical language ably used. Spelling mostly accurate. (9 points) Language use supports the writer's goals to a very high standard. Technical language used as required. Spelling is accurate. In-text referencing correctly formatted (2 points) Minimal understanding of citing conventions for in-text referencing. (2.5 points) In-text citing uses some conventions, but with quite a few errors (3 points) In-text sources cited in the academic style with some errors (4 points) In-text references cited in academic style with very few errors (5 points) All in-text sources referenced correctly Reference list correctly formatted (1 points) No reference list or serious errors in reference list construction (2.5 points) Reference list provided, but errors in structure or omission of many cited references (3 points) Reference list has some errors in structure. All cited references are listed. (4 points) Reference list has minor error or 2 in structure. All cited references are listed. ...read more.

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