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Malassezia Dermatitis

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Introduction

Malassezia Dermatitis Vet Hospital II Kim Geary � Malassezia Dermatitis is a fungal skin infection. It is caused by Malassezia pachydermatis, a "lipophilic, non-lipid-dependent, nonmycelial saprophytic yeast." (D.V.M Scott, V.M.D. Miller, Jr., and D.V.M. Griffin 363-374). Malassezia is most commonly located in the ear canal, a**l sacs, v****a, and r****m. While cats are susceptible to Malassezia infections, it is far more prevalent in dogs. It has been shown that within the Malassezia genus there are "six lipid dependent species and one non-lipid-dependent species." (D.V.M Scott, V.M.D. Miller, Jr., and D.V.M. Griffin 363-374). While yeast itself is commonly found on the skin, Malassezia can become a serious problem when the skins immune system is weakened enough to allow it [Malassezia] to enter. This can occur with any hereditary or infectious disease, though is most common with bacterial infections, allergies, and seborrhea (Veterinary & Aquatic Services Department, Drs. Foster & Smith). � � Clinical Signs � Malassezia most often begins in summer and/or very humid months, much like allergy season. ...read more.

Middle

Griffin 363-374). There are many ways to obtain a sample for microscopic evaluation. A cotton swab, impression smear, skin scrap, and scotch tape sample are all effective ways to obtain a sample. Each of these methods is equally effective, all with their own benefits (D.V.M Scott, V.M.D. Miller, Jr., and D.V.M. Griffin 363-374). After the sample is attained it should then be transferred to a glass slide and heat fixed, with the exception of the tape method. The samples may also be stained using New Methylene Blue in place of heat fixing (D.V.M Scott, V.M.D. Miller, Jr., and D.V.M. Griffin 363-374). A skin biopsy also can be performed, although it is a very invasive option it can provide much more diagnostic information (D.V.M. Brooks). Another way to diagnosis Malassezia is to culture. It is typically easy to culture because it is not lipid dependent and grow best on Sabouraud's dextrose agar with the exception of the lipid-dependent Malassezia spp. ...read more.

Conclusion

If the shampoos by themselves aren't working they can be followed by lime sulfur 2%, acetic acid 2.5%, or enilconazole 0.2% dips. For localized infections antifungal creams, ointments, sprays, or lotions can be used. Topical treatments may also be combined with oral medications. Ketoconazole is the most common, however itraconazole and fluconazole are also effective (D.V.M Scott, V.M.D. Miller, Jr., and D.V.M. Griffin 363-374). Acetic or boric acid can help maintain a normal pH for ear infections (peted). A response to treatment is generally seen within 7 days, but treatment should continue for at least 7 to 10 more days with 4 weeks being the average duration of treatment (D.V.M Scott, V.M.D. Miller, Jr., and D.V.M. Griffin 363-374). � � While systemic and topical therapy is effective against Malassezia dermatitis, because it is most often associated with concurrent dermatoses, it must be treated as well (D.V.M Scott, V.M.D. Miller, Jr., and D.V.M. Griffin 363-374). Malassezia will typically reoccur especially within those predisposed breeds. While irritating to pet and owner alike, Malassezia is a nonfatal and treatable infection. ...read more.

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