"How does anxiety affect performance, during a competitive football match; researching the difference between University and Professional players."
. Research question "How does anxiety affect performance, during a competitive football match; researching the difference between University and Professional players." 2. Introduction "Football is played at a professional level all over the world, and millions of people regularly go to football stadia to follow their favourite team, whilst billions more avidly watch the game on television. A very large number of people also play football at an amateur level." (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Football_(soccer)) The purpose of this investigation is to unfold the many factors during a game of football that could affect a player's level of performance. This topic is significant because when watching a competitive football match as the viewer one must wonder why performances of players in the team range differently on a scale of high or low. The answer to the question that is stated above will make people realise what players think in a game situation and can offer assistance. The study will observe the relationship between University and Professional players due to main difference of ability levels and the difference in the venues where they perform. University players tend to play in more casual playing fields and pitches that are set out without any stands and hardly any supporters. At professional stadiums, normally thousands of people watch the game from the stands. This is
"Later adulthood is characterised by a gradual, inevitable loss of cognitive capacities." Evaluate this statement.
"Later adulthood is characterised by a gradual, inevitable loss of cognitive capacities." Evaluate this statement. What is cognition? It is the general term given for mental activities. In cognitive psychology, it is the study of higher mental processes; memory, attention, language and reasoning. In contrast to behaviourists; cognitive psychologists are more ready to posit mechanisms and processes that are not directly observable, such as memory stores and switches of attention. Cognitive research includes several different facets of mental life, such as the use of imagery in representation, processes of decision-making and problem solving and reasoning (A First Course in Psychology, Nicky Haynes, 3rd edition, Harrap Ltd, London, Page 202). It is a common belief that cognitive capacities do decline with age. However what aspect of cognition is affected by age? Cognition is all to do with the memory. The memory is the ability to access information in the mind relating to past experiences and events. The theories of the memory deal with the causes of forgetting; pure decay or interference from other material, and the possibility that there are two or more distinct stores from which the information is forgotten at different rates, short term and long term memory. They also analyse the distinction between episodic memory; the memory of specific events experienced by the
Attention & Memory To What Extent Are Our Memories Accurate Reconstructions Of Past Events? Papadopoulos Sotirios University of Lincoln Level II, Tutor: Gogousi Melina The memory used to store information and events experienced in life, either trivia or important is called autobiographical or episodic memory (Eysenck & Keane, 1998; Hampson & Morris, 1997; Mayes, Gooding & Van Eijk, 1997; Payne, Klin, Lampinen, Neuschatz & Lindsay, 1999; Smyth, Collins, Morris & Levy, 1996). Conway and Bekerian(1987) stated that the structure of episodic memory has three distinct levels: a. lifetime periods : substantial time periods defined by major ongoing situations and more effective cues than most other cues when it comes to memory retrieval, b. general events : repeated and/or extended events that occurred for a period of days to months, c. event-specific knowledge : refers to images, emotions and details concerning general events covering time periods of seconds to hours. It is some psychologist's belief that autobiographical and episodic memory should not be regarded as the same and that autobiographical may exist without episodic memory and vice-versa (Eysenck & Keane, 1998). The research into autobiographical memory is being held "in the field" and without the use of lists of words or nonsense syllables, (Hampson & Morris, 1997). Our ability to recall events and information
What factors can lead to a problem being relatively easily solved? "A problem exists when a living organism has a goal but does not know how this goal is to be reached." (Dunker 1945 cited in Green and Gilhooly, 2005, p.350). The very definition of a problem suggests that there are two sides to the equation of what makes problem solving relatively easy; the problem and the solver. Whilst both are inextricably linked, how problems are structured and their relative features have an enormous influence on how they are solved. Equally important is the information processing systems of the problem solvers themselves which consist of, but are not limited to, knowledge of heuristics, memory confines and relevant . Thus by breaking down and combining various elements of both; the problems and the solvers, this essay intends to develop a framework of ideas that explain how some problems come to be relatively easily solved. Problems can be grouped into two main categories; knowledge lean problems (also known as 'simple' problems) and knowledge rich problems (also known as 'complex'). The former requires little background knowledge from the solver whilst the latter requires extensive background knowledge (Green and Gilhooly, 2005). Since many of the factors that make problems easier to solve in one actually overlap into both categories, it is worth detailing them individually within
"Critically review some of the recent findings regarding the influence of our hormonal system and/or ANS on cognition and discuss the overall implications"
Cognitive Neuroscience "Critically review some of the recent findings regarding the influence of our hormonal system and/or ANS on cognition and discuss the overall implications" 2COG609 Catherine Loveday Zukreat Majeed 00109029 "Critically review some of the recent findings regarding the influence of our hormonal system and/or ANS on cognition and discuss the overall implications" The human brain has often been closely associated with the digital computer. However, research within the field of psychendocrinology have illustrated that it is more like an endocrine gland, producing and secreting molecules of neuropeptides, neurotransmitters, and hormones, which influence its own functions as well as functions of distant target organs. Research in humans and animals has shown that key brain regions involved with cognition including the cerebral cortex,? basal forebrain,? and hippocampus, all contain estrogen receptors.? Likewise there is also strong evidence which suggests that estrogen boosts a variety of brain abilities including memory (Birge 2000)? So far the mechanisms of this action and the mental processes affected by estrogen remain the subject of current investigations. However, from studies in animals and humans, it has become apparent that estrogen has substantial effects on the action of the Central nervous system (Maki et al 2001).? Previous studies have
"Compare Grice's Conversational Maxims with Sperber and Wilson's Theory of Relevance" This essay will compare the conversational maxims of Grice with Sperber and Wilson's Relevance theory, concluding that Grice has the more useful approach, and bodes well for the future of Natural Language Processing. The two theories attempt an analysis of language that goes beyond mere syntax or semantics - to discover the pragmatic meaning conveyed by a sentence, above and beyond the truth-conditional meaning of what is said. Crudely, pragmatics is the process of relating a sentence to the context in which it occurs, the context being either linguistic or non-linguistic. In the former, the meaning of a sentence may depend upon surrounding sentences - both preceding it and those whose meaning may be influenced by the sentence in question. So we might determine the reference of pronouns: Anthony Burgess used to avoid Monday-morning Linguistic lectures. His tutors scarcely saw him all term. Whereas non-linguistic contexts provide knowledge about the person producing the utterance, and what they wish to achieve from the communication: Has anyone seen Anthony Burgess? (a) ie, Has anybody visually perceived him? (b) A sarcastic comment that Burgess is rarely in his lectures And so on. Pragmatics, and semantics, need recourse to knowledge about the world or the domain modelled. There is,
Eyewitness Testimony (EWT) essay Is Eyewitness testimony reliable and accurate? Include case studies to back this up. EWT refers to evidence supplied by people who witness a specific event or crime, relying on their own memory. Statements often include descriptions given in a criminal trial and subsequent identification by individuals who were present at the crime scene. EWT is likely to dependent on reconstructive memory(Bartlett,1932) which describes how memory is more than a passive recall. It is the active process of building up memory using fragments to fill gaps of an event in memory plus the expectations and assumptions (schema) of that event. This form of EWT is not 100% accurate as it is relying on the schema to fill in these gaps and varies from person to person. Reconstruction is not the only form of distortion in EWT as language; leading questions and post-event information may even distort reconstruction, further leading to memory to use and confabulation. Loftus and Palmer found that changing the wording of one critical question ("About how fast were the cars going when they (hit/smashed/collided/ bumped/contacted-the five conditions) each other?") posed to eyewitnesses of a car accident had a significant effect on the estimated speed of the vehicles. Loftus and Palmer found that estimated speed was influenced by the verb used. The verb implied information
In this study we generated number sequences at two different speeds, which relatively are one number every second (1Hz) and one number every four seconds (4Hz) in order to test varying conditions in which individuals might act randomly.
Running head: RANDOMNESS AND RANDOM IDENTIFICATION Determining Randomness and Random Identification Li Howe Tan (SID: 308142659) University of Sydney Tutorial: Tuesday (4.00pm - 5.00pm) Abstract In this study we generated number sequences at two different speeds, which relatively are one number every second (1Hz) and one number every four seconds (4Hz) in order to test varying conditions in which individuals might act randomly. Specifically we are interested the extent at which individuals were to make stereotypical errors in generating numbers at different speed, and how they would take into account of their previous responses of their decisions in order to formulate a new sequence. Also, to confirm if individuals are capable of being random under stipulative conditions. The result obtained was highly correlated, however we cannot determine on how good individuals are at generating numbers randomly, as 'random' is a term which has been stereotyped as being not the same, however could be argued that a sequence is not random if an individual uses effort to think of the following number he or she wants to generate. Determining Randomness and Random Identification It has long been discussed that individuals uneducated in probability theory will often deviate from the statistical notion of randomness (Reichenbach, 1934/1949, as cited in Rapoport & Budescu, 1992). This
The author of this work is currently employed as a community psychiatric nurse whose remit is to work with those clients with serious and enduring mental illness, the majority of whom have a medical diagnosis of schizophrenia and related psychosis. Over the past 10 years there's been a growing movement towards diverse treatments for schizophrenia other than the acknowledged role of medication as a treatment modality (Birchwood and Tarrier 1993). Developments in psychological theory have led to a number of innovative psychological treatments drawn from human experimental psychology such as behavioural and social psychology and cognitive science. Therapies based on cognitive behavioural theory have been rapidly developing, initially for the so called 'neurotic disorders' but in recent years evidence has accumulated to suggest that these cognitive behavioural approaches can be effective for those people suffering from psychosis ( Williams 1995). The aim of this assignment is to explore the basis of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and review its' therapeutic application to schizophrenia. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) is an evolutionary paradigm that came about a from the merging of the established paradigm of behavioural therapy and contemporary cognitive therapy (Clarke and Fairburn 1997). Behavioural therapy historically focused on anxiety, phobic
Choose a psychologist, Write a short essay on his/her approach, Include the king of research he/she carried out, Outline the studies he/she did.
Amanda Alderson Access to Health care Oakwood Park Day 25th October 2003 Choose a psychologist. Write a short essay on his/her approach. Include the king of research he/she carried out. Outline the studies he/she did. Elizabeth Loftus was born in Los Angeles, California on 16th October 1944.Although she was planning to become a maths teacher, whilst at UCLA she discovered psychology, it was there that she achieved her BA in both maths and psychology She then went on to Graduate school at Stanford and received her M.A in 1967 and also her PhD in 1970 both in psychology. It was while at Stanford that Elizabeth became interested in long term memory and this led her into research how the mind classifies and remembers information and then recalls it. Elizabeth is known worldwide as a cognitive psychologist who works in the specialized field of memory. Psychologists who use the cognitive approach are mainly interested in the way that we perceive process and store information. The cognitive process can be divided into five different processes, perception, attention, memory, language, and studying the way that we think. Cognitive psychologists see psychology as a science and most studies are done in laboratories under controlled conditions. There is now a method of interviewing based on four main principles that helps to improve eye witness memory recalls. This was devised by