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´╗┐EXAMINE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION FOR THE five ? 19 YEAR OLD CHILDREN WITH LEARNING DISABILITIES IN ENGLAND. CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1: LITERATURE REVIEW 1. Debates and Definition in Inclusive education 2. Inclusive Education as a Human Rights: CHAPTER 2: METHODOLOGY CHAPTER 3: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES CHAPTER 4: POLICY CONTEXT 1. Government Policy Initiatives CHAPTER 5: The Theory and Practice 1. Children, Parents, Research Perspectives CHAPTER 6: DATA ANALYSIS 1. Negative Outcomes of the study 6. Positive Outcomes 7. Study Recommendations CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY ABSTRACT England has obligations under international human rights law to provide inclusive education for all children regardless of their abilities, gender and sexualities (CSIE, 2000). Inclusive education in England was also influenced by the Disabled People?s Movements (Hodkinson and Vickerman, 2009). Inclusive education happens when children with disabilities are moved from segregation education (special schools) and become included within mainstream education. This dissertation is going to focus on school aged children with learning disabilities. Children with learning disabilities have a right to access universal education like other children without learning disabilities. Children with learning disabilities are included in mainstream education with those without disabilities so that they can have an opportunity to receive the same standard of education and also share experiences about each other in order to create a positive attitude. In addition, children with learning disabilities will gain more skills and knowledge that will prepare them for employment and mainstream life chances as equal citizens. People with learning difficulties in England continue to experience socio-economic and cultural exclusion from mainstream society and as a result this target group is often not included in the mainstream education. Inclusive education entails social inclusion, social justice and the empowerment of children with learning difficulties and requires their inclusion into the mainstream curriculum, teaching methods and classrooms together with their peers. As well as equipping children with learning difficulties with the knowledge and skills necessary for their participation in society it also challenges and changes societal attitudes regarding children with disabilities. ...read more.


The Labour party when they came in power in 1997 introduced inclusive education as a policy in which they stated that inclusion in education promotes inclusion within the society. The above being the case, in England, the Children Act 1989, a guidance on the implementation of the rights of the child including those rights concerned with the rights of children with learning difficulties, amended in 2004 was published in The Inclusive Charter in 1989 as a follow up of the UN Convention on the Right of the Child, Children Act Enterprise (2004, 1). CSIE further notices that besides other developments in the England, in 2000, Tony Booth and Mel Ainscow published the Index for Inclusion, a set of material designed to support mainstream schools in the process of inclusive education which aims to break down the barriers to learning and participation and was recognised by the government in its legislation for inclusion. The period 1989 to 2004 have therefore seen the government policy, legal and national action, all combining their resources to make inclusive happen. There are of course number of reasons why society in England began to question the rationale behind the theories of segregation of people with learning difficulties leading to inclusive ideas discussed above. Swain et al (2004,21) argues that the period 1970s saw the emergence of the Disabled People?s movements which challenged the theories of segregation and exclusion (Medical Model) leading to the acceptance and integration of people with learning difficulties (Social Model) in education. There are contributions made by other disciples such as psychology which will be discussed later in chapter six. However it is clear that the above mention changes which include the 1970?s legislation as discussed and other legislations and policy up to date are clear examples of inclusive and positive perceptions of people with learning difficulties. The following chapter will therefore discuss the English and international laws with reference to the inclusion of children with learning difficulties in England. ...read more.


Outcomes from the English experience showed that inclusive education is not effective in England. There is continuous reliance on parental rights and responsibilities in the children?s decisions about their own lives, even though the government put forward policies seeking to promote the views and decisions. Acts like the Mental Capacity Act 2005, do not cater for children below the age of 16, hence these children will continue to be seen as not having capacity to make their own decision. Again there is not much effort made by the government in England to make national syllabus accessible to all children as well as include inclusive methodology in teacher education so that teachers could cater for individual differences effectively in classrooms. Hence a view that some children will never be included in mainstream education because of their disability, especial those children with severe disabilities. There is continuous use of discriminating language such as Special Educational Needs, Disability, instead of more inclusive terms. Hence this is a medical model viewing of learning difficulties which make inclusion difficult. Further, society and policy makers still see the social model as a theory far from practice. Continuous criticism by inclusive activists of such special needs resources such as Special Needs teachers and statement, making it difficult for inclusion to benefit children with severe learning difficulties. The research however found some positive practices in English inclusive programme and these include the fact that England has already begun such practices as integration, special needs and the social model versus the medical model debate. While working towards inclusive education in England, it would be ideal to acknowledge that this policy has brought about changes on how children with learning disabilities are viewed within the society. Again this programme gives parents a choice of where they want their children to be educated, whereas before children with learning difficulties could only be educated in special school. This is seen as a positive step towards inclusive education and social justice for children with learning difficulties and as tool of fighting discrimination for children with learning difficulties in England. ...read more.

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