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# University Degree: Engineering

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1. ## Study the structure of a transformer and find out the efficiency and voltage regulation of a transformer.

Construct the above transformer with the apparatus provided. 2) Connect the below circuit. 3) After completed the circuit, then invite lecturer to check the circuit. 4) By varying the adjustable transformer, verify the functioning of the transformer. But never turn the output voltage of the adjustable transformer more than 70V. Open circuit Test: Procedure 1) Adjust output voltage from the adjustable transformer step by step, measure the V2 2) Fill in the below table V1 (Volt) A1 (Ampere) V2 (Volt)

• Word count: 776
2. ## Ultraviolet visible spectrophotometry. To measure different concentration (one or two substances) of solution, spectrophotometry can determinate an unknown solution.

The basic principle of quantitative absorption spectroscopy lies in comparing the extent of absorption of a sample solution with that of a set of standards under radiation of a selected wavelength through the application of Beer's law (A = ?bc, where A = absorbance, ? = molar extinction coefficient, b = path length, and c = concentration). Beer's law illustrates that a substance's absorption is the product of the substance concentration, the length of light path through the sample and the molar absorptive.

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3. ## Atomic absorption spectroscopy. In this experiment, the characteristics of flame ASS instrumentation will be explored. Pb and Mg calibrate curve will be investigated.

we only can measure it when we change its energy. Adding thermal energy (heat) can cause an atom to increase to a higher energy state. This is the basic principle of AAS. Figure 1 shows the AAS progress. The widely used atomizer is flame. First, the sample solution is aspirated by a pneumatic nebulizer, transformed into an aerosol, which is introduced into a spray chamber, where it is mixed with the flame gases. Second, the monochromator detect the flame (this part is similar to UV spectrophotometer). Then, computer shows the graph and figures.[2, 3] Figure 1.

• Word count: 1893
4. ## Lactic acid fermentation in Bioreactor

This assignment also discussed the influence of pH and temperature on the fermentation process. There exists an optimal temperature and pH value for bio-process, because the cell (Lactobacillus casei) is very sensitive to temperature and pH value. Although the model above did not cover the impact of temperature, this article still discussed the influence of them by using pervious work. Any modeling has its limitation. In this model, the parameter chooses is a very important part. Different parameter from literature has significant effect on the result. The result shows initial substrate has significant impact on fermentation time and maximum concentration.

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5. ## Implementation for count down timer project.

The manual mode and the relay state is memorized internally, in this way if the instrument is turning Off and then turning On the manual mode and the relay state again replied. Objectives : The specific objectives will be; 1. To be able to construct an adjustable digital countdown timer that has various applications such as a time management device to start relay. 2. To implement the appropriate logic circuit for proper timer operation. 3. To verify the theory presented regarding logic gates, logic circuits and switching, and Integrated circuits for digital applications.

• Word count: 2165
6. ## There are two main forms of High Voltage electrical systems mainly used for commercial purposes to supply high-rise buildings and industries; they are High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) and High Voltage Alternating Current (HV-ac).

On the other hand, HV-ac is preferred for application in industries because of safety and generation of rotary motion as in motors and other applications. Production of electrical voltage is also in ac form. Therefore, from the generating station, electric power is first converted from ac to dc for high voltage transmission and then converted again to ac at the receiving end for usage. HV Technology AC to DC conversion for Transmission At the generating station, power is produced as an alternating current.

• Word count: 918
7. ## Laser Doppler Anemometry Experiment

The coherent laser light is used to measure the velocity and the particle size. Standard optical components were used to split, focus and collect the laser light. In this experiment different parameters were measured using the Laser and optical devices. These parameters include the determination of fringe spacing, measurement control volume (MCV) in air and water. The experiment also included the determination of focal length of the lens and optimization of signal taken from the Avalanche Photo Diode (APD) attached to the Oscilloscope.

• Word count: 3516
8. ## Aerodynamic Flow and Effects around a Double Edge Aerofoil in Supersonic Flow

around objects. The basic system uses light from a single collimated source shining on, or behind, a target object. If the fluid flow is uniform the image will be steady, but any turbulence will cause scintillation. In turbulent flow the light's path will be bent, due to changes in the index of refraction caused by density gradients. In this case some of the light that would otherwise be seen in the camera will instead hit the object, and some that would normally be blocked will become visible. The result is a set of lighter and darker patches corresponding to different densities in the fluid.

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9. ## Shielded Metal Arc Welding

The two principal means to overcome these impediments are to employ heat and pressure in some combination, from one extreme to the other. When done well, welding offers several advantages over other methods of joining, but, as for all things in life, not without some limitations and sacrifices. [Ref. 1] Methodology During the experiment two steel samples were used. They were laid parallel to each other. The metal pieces were joined together by arc welding. The electrode was evenly deposited evenly from one end of the joint to the other. After welding, the sample was quenched using ice cold water.

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10. ## DENSITY LAB. The purpose of this lab experiment is to determine the density of four objects of various engineering materials and to perform an accurate error analysis of the measurements taken.

Measure the diameter of cylinder 5 times using slide caliper. 10. Measure the height of cylinder 5 times using slide caliper. 11. Calculate the volume of cylinder from measurements. 12. Calculate the density of cylinder from measurements. 13. Calculate averages. 14. Measure mass of cone 5 times using the electronic weight scale. 15. Measure the diameter of cone 5 times using slide caliper. 16. Measure the height of cone 5 times using slide caliper. 17. Calculate the volume of cone from measurements.

• Word count: 2029
11. ## Creep in Metals Laboratory Report

Three lead specimens were pulled to failure with loads of 0.6kg, 0.7kg, and 0.8kg weights. The cross sections (length, width, thickness) of the lead specimens were measured using a micrometer. With this information, we were able to find the stress. The lead specimen was fitted in to the lever arm using the steel pins. Weight of 0.6kg was loaded onto the weight hanger and the hanger was gently released. We recorded the extension readings from the dial test indicator every 15 seconds for the primary stage of creep and every minute when the extension rate slowed down.

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12. ## How Realistic is the Carbon Emission Reduction Target (CERT)?

Low-lying areas, wetlands and small islands will be vulnerable from sea-level rise which could cause even extinction. Take for example Bangladesh; a sea level rise of 45cm could result in 10% of the total land area being lost. Even developed countries will be affected. In UK, increased sea levels could threaten communities by the sea. Storms and severe weather conditions could have high costly impacts like the floods in the autumn of 2000 which cost UK 1 billion pounds. A recent report by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers claimed that if no action is taken, sea levels will increase by 7 meters by 2250, flooding much of London, East Anglia and other coastal areas.

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13. ## Production of liquid fuels from biomass by pyrolysis and fermentation

In the same report it is stated that "Our climate is changing so unless we adapt, we are likely to face a difficult future" (Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 2009). Moreover, the International Energy Agency, estimates that energy demand across the world will increase by 50% to 60%, between 2004 and 2030 (International Energy Agency, 2009). Because of these facts, concerns globally have increased, and people seek alternative methods of producing energy, more sustainable and less harmful for the environment and for all leaving organisms.

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14. ## The Lab was to investigate the actual mass flow rate of the compressor within the system and how it would differ from the ideal mass flow rate.

Calculating the mass flow rate of the compressor using the ideal gas equation. Therefore, Results using the equation for the mass flow rate each time: Fig 2 t average (s) Pf (Pa) ?m 21.0 69028.8 0.178752 39.1 137956.3 0.352941 58.5 206883.8 0.527732 78.1 275811.3 0.696986 99.3 344738.8 0.865773 Mass flow rate against time Fig 3 Note that all pressures and temperatures must be in equilibrium values.

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15. ## CALIBRATION OF AN OPEN CIRCUIT WIND TUNNEL

The coefficients are calculate by there formulae which is in the handout. The Data is also shown on the graph figure 3. Figure 3 The velocity and the Static, Stagnation coefficients all follow a similar pattern. Table 2: Hole Number Pa-Pn (inches/H20) Pa-Pn (mm/H20) Static Gradient Coefficient 1 19.5 10.8 0.26 2 19.5 10.8 0.26 3 19.7 14.4 0.35 4 19.9 18.0 0.43 5 20.3 25.1 0.60 6 21.7 50.3 1.21 7 21.6 48.5 1.17 8 21.5 46.7 1.12 9 21.7 50.3 1.21 10 21.7 50.3 1.21 11 21.6 48.5 1.17 12 21.2 41.3 0.99 13 21.45 45.8 1.10 14

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16. ## Surface Material Choice, Environmental Considerations and Work Schedules for a Motorway widening project.

where rigid pavements may lose non-skid surface with time * Tolerates a greater range of temperatures * Easily repaired - the overlying asphalt can be easily removed and then recycled to become the new cover. * If a rigid pavement does fail the implications are concerning. For instance, the failures take the form of rigid steps in the road grade. Each section "floats" like a boat above the sub grade and tries to level itself rather than maintain the original slope.

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17. ## For my project I was required to choose a viable material for a bicycle pump tube of dimensions diameter 20mm by 1.5mm thick wall. The design specifications given to consider were cost and quality.

A flexible material has a low value for Young's Modulus. Typically a a young's modulus value of less than 1Gpqa tends to be flexible, whilst metals which are stiff tend to have values of approximately 100Gpa. The material I have chosen for my project is PVC. The material has a young's modulus range of .003 - .0035Gpa. Within the given design parameters cost was specified as one of the main factors to consider. It was mainly for this reason that I chose PVC as it is very cheap to produce.

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18. ## Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill. Recovery efforts during the Deep Water Oil Spill used Information Communication Technologies (ICT) such as remote sensor technology and satellite imagery technology.

such as remote sensor technology and satellite imagery technology. Such technology were used in order to monitor the magnitude of the oil spill giving recovery efforts visual data that they could work with as well as a method of being able to obtain the trajectories of the oil spill in order to prevent further spread of the oil in the water. Use of ICT's to assist in Recovery. The use of ICT's such as remote sensor technology and satellite imagery was effectively used by the petroleum industry in previous years prior to the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill for exploration purposes.

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19. ## Structural Collapses. Structural collapses are disasters that require efficient and immediate responses by engineers and other emergency services. This report discusses these responses in order to expose barriers and issues that could potentially cause a

Such data is considered to be highly valuable in response to a structural collapse and its value is confirmed by Matsushiba & Nishi 'The system monitors structural vibration caused by earthquakes, detects structural damage and predicts performance and lifecycle of the structure' (2010, p.76). The monitoring data collected thus results in not only the location of any structural damage, but as well as the overall performance and condition of the structure. With this, the SHM system is able to determine a structures approximate lifespan and thus reducing its overall operational costs (Chintalapudi et al 2006).

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20. ## In this assignment I will be identifying and explaining the engineering business functions including organisational and operational structures, planning within business structures, factors driven by product development and explaining the difference betwee

By Product The chart shows the layout of a "by product" structure. According to tutor2u.net this kind of structure focuses on individual products which allow them to concentrate on their own problems and concern of their products. This structure can also encourage positive competition between each department which can lead to more product sales. In this structure, there is the danger of duplication of function like the marketing department or finance department for each product. This leads creating more than one department that does the same function. By Geography This type of structure is commonly used by multination companies which concentrate on providing products based on local needs.

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21. ## Health and Safety. A permit to work is a written system which control works that are potentially hazardous. A permit to work document specifies the precaution on the work that is to be done. They only allow the work to start when all of the safe working

This particular permit to work doesn't have a section for plant identification, protective equipment, extensions/ shift handover and cancellation. Some of this is not that critical to have but it would make the permit to work more detailed. One of the criteria that this permit didn't had is protective equipment, even though this particular permit hasn't got a particular section for this it does have a small section for other hazards and controls and other precautions. So you could use these sections as a replacement section for protective equipment.

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22. ## MANUFACTURING PLAN FOR WING OF PAV. For the wings of a new personal air vehicle (PAV); skins ands ribs are produced by sheet metal forming process and spars are produced by machining process.

After removing the skins from stretch presses, the marked tooling holes are drilled for succeeding assembly operations. An example of stretch forming process is shown in Figure - 2. Figure - 2 [2] Skin Routing Routing operation could be done with two techniques; The first one is using a routing shell tool which has two parts which have exactly same form of the skin. The skin is then located in between them which is fixed with the tooling holes previously opened after stretching and a hand router is traveled around the tool to shape the skin to its final contour.

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23. ## Repair scheme for the damaged hull. The damaged sandwich panel consists of two high strength GRP skin and skins separated by a low density, lower strength foam core.

Type A damage can also include debonding of the skin from the core. Type B damage involves Type A damage to one skin combined with crushing or shear cracking of the core. Type C damage involves the same damage mechanisms as Type B except both skins are affected. Type C damage can fully penetrate the sandwich structure [1]. Assuming the hole approximately 150mm in diameter is a though hole and damaged both skins and foam core, we have Type C damage. So we need to repair this damage according to Type C repair scenario.

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24. ## Properties of Ideal Gases and Performance of a Basic Heat Engine

To applying weight to the piston there is a platform situated on top. To allow for release of pressure and connecting of tubing from piston to cylinder there are vents and a shut-off valve situated on the heat engine. Air chamber is connected by a tube situated separately to the base apparatus. This creates the heat transfer. Containers used for storing cold and hot water. Thermometers positioned in the water bath gives a reading of the temperature. Procedure Experiment is set as shown.

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25. ## Car Bumper Design - materials and specifications.

To combat this application material's with high absorption and tensile strength is look at first. [1] * Environmental factor Environmental factor involves a range of different topics for this project the main ones will be focus on o Recycling or disposal of the material safely and cheaply. A polymer that is commonly recyclable with low disposal costs. o Protection of the material for weather conditions. Nearly all plastic experience UV degrading from the sun or micro fractures occurring from frost over time. Finding the highest resilient polymer and adding additives should solve this problem for a suitable polymer.

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"A common mistake that people make when trying to design something completely foolproof is to underestimate the ingenuity of complete fools." - Douglas Adams

If you want to learn about physics and use it to solve real-world problems, a university degree in engineering might be for you. Engineering is a very diverse discipline: there are mechanical engineers, chemical engineers, and computer engineers, to name just a few. So whether you want to design soaring bridges, sleek airplanes, or efficient sewer systems, there's bound to be an area of engineering to suit you.

If you already have a solid foundation for the scientific portion of the coursework, but you need some support for writing lab reports and papers, look no further than Marked by Teachers' collection of student-submitted and teacher-annotated engineering essays. Study the collection to get inspiration, and to gather tips for good writing. Before long, you'll know how to plan and construct essays to the highest standard.

Engineering students can go on to research or practice within the field, or they might leave to pursue careers in other areas, includingbusiness,teaching, and finance.

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## Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.