• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Canada Fur Trade

Extracts from this document...


The Fur Trade in Canada: The Ecological Impact of the Fur Trade on the Indians of North America by LeFei Xie SIE Level 5 Professor Kevin 15 May 2008 Outline I. Thesis statement: The ecological impact of the fur trade on the Indians of North America demonstrates that the Indians were not the beneficiaries, but the victims in the Canadian fur trade. II. The initiation of a new cooperation between the White and the Indians. A. The initial commercial intercourse. B. The new approach to cooperation. III. The fur trade changed the Indian living environment and their ecological ethics. A. The fur trade accelerated the extinction of many precious animals, and then changed the Indian living environment. B. While the animals were gradually extinct, the fur trade was changing the Indian ecological ethics step by step. IV. "Gifts" from the White: guns, liquor and epidemic. V. Conclusion: The Canadian economic development has benefited a lot from the fur trade at the expense of the Indian living environment and ecological ethics in North America. Xie 1 LeFei Xie Professor Kevin SIE Level 5 15 May 2008 The Fur Trade in Canada: The Ecological Impact of the Fur Trade on the Indians of North America The fur frontier had been the most fantastic frontier in the history of North America. It not only lasted more than 300 years, and covered almost the whole North America, but it also shaped a new mode of interaction between the White and the Indians, and brought the Indians of North America a profound impact on their living environment as well as ecological ethics. ...read more.


By 1831 the beaver was extinct on the northern Great Plains and two years later the Hudson's Bay Company issued instructions not to waste time hunting in certain areas because the beaver was so rare"(Ponting 158). Besides, the fur trade in French New France, as the pivot of economy, also slaughtered a large variety of fur-bearing animals. "In one year (1734) La Rochelle, one of the centres of trade with Canada, Xie 3 imported skins from 127,000 beavers, 30,000 martens, 12,000 otters, 110,000 racoons and 16,000 bears (158). Also, "similar figures were common at the other French and British ports trading with North America" (158). Obviously, unrestrained competition in the fur trade drove the number of fur-bearing animals to the point of extinction. Before the White settled down, plentiful animal resources had been a vital source of food to the Indians. The fur-bearing animals killed cut off the food supply to the Indians however, and therefore, it led to the poverty of the Indians as well as aggravated their dependence on the White. Furthermore, while the animals were gradually extinguishing, the fur trade was changing the Indian ecological ethics. The Indians had lived in their lifestyle in North America for thousands of years. They had to follow a series of strict procedures to kill the animal they hunted. According to Alexander Henry's description, after killing a beaver, the Ojibwa believed all the animals were his relatives. ...read more.


At the same time, the fur trade changed both the Indian social life and their culture. On one hand, the fur trade brought about the White's commodities and Western culture to the Indian. On the other hand, two points of view existed among the Indian. Part of Indian wanted their traditional lifestyle back, while the other part promoted the White's culture and put modernism into practice. Second, the fur frontier, the same as the fishing frontier and the agriculture frontier, was a kind of staple economy in North America. Those economic modes usually depended on exploring one or several sources which would be supplied exportation. Therefore, at that time, beavers, foxes, white-tailed deer and other fur-bearing animals were over hunted for the fur Xie 5 exploring. Although the fur trade increased the economic development, it destroyed the North American environment by leading several animals to be essentially extinct. Third, the fur trade changed the Indian living conditions and ecological ethics. Some contemporary academics believed that the fur trade did not collapse the native culture, and the Indians were not the victims in the fur trade, but the participants (Krech 81-82). Nevertheless, look back the Indian living from the 16th century to the 19th century, we can easily find that the Indian traditional ethics and social order were seriously destroyed by the White; also, the Indian suffered from different diseases and being addicted to alcohol brought by the White. Obviously, the Indian was the victim in the North American fur trade. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Other Religion section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Other Religion essays

  1. The Quran and Genesis report similar events in history. However, through the difference ...

    In Genesis, from Adam's rib, God created woman, who was named Eve (Genesis 1:27). In the Qur'an, Adam had a wife but her name was never mentioned (Koran 7:19). In both stories God places the two of them in a garden.

  2. The Book of Genesis shares many realistic and sacred obstacles experienced by Jacob and ...

    Jacob takes the covenant and flees to Paddan-aram (Genesis 28:2). While Jacob reached his goal in earning the covenant, it was shameful of him to trick his father. Many years later Jacob is deceived by his own sons when they bring him Joseph's bloody coat.

  1. What is the importance of Zionism in modern Jewish life and religion, why

    efforts to get their own state, this in turn caused more ill will towards them. The result was massive emigration with the government encouraging them to leave the Arab states. And so throughout the early twentieth century the Zionist movement started to grow with large groups of Jews settling in


    La mayor�a de los ate�stas rechaza acusaciones te�stas, y consideran su propia moralidad, de car�cter generalmente racional, como m�s v�lida que la moralidad te�sta. Para un ateo el valor de la vida es relativo, pues depende del valor individual que le de cada persona.

  1. During Bob Marley's life he found many influences in many different aspects of life. ...

    The Jamaican Government found bands like Bob Marley and the Wailers offensive. They were referred to as rude boys. Bands like this emerged from the worst ghettos in Kingston. In 1965 living conditions in western Kingston got progressively worse. In late August of that year an eruption of violence broke out in Trenchtown and many of the surrounding communities.

  2. The film Martha Marcy May Marln looks at fragility of th human mind and ...

    organic foods, thеy arе sееn to bе far from indеpеndеnt , rеliant on bеing givеn monеy or stеaling it from thе neighbours.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work