After the accession of Henry VIII, England began an inevitable change towards Protestantism, which was supported and encouraged by the English People'. How far do you agree with the appraisal of religious change that took place in England 1500-1600?
'After the accession of Henry VIII, England began an inevitable change towards Protestantism, which was supported and encouraged by the English People'. How far do you agree with the appraisal of religious change that took place in England 1500-1600? The rise of Protestantism was not inevitable. There was certainly a strong force for a separation from Rome. As we shall see Henry VIII had a strong personal motivation for the separation. Significant sections of the elite resented the influence of Rome. The seizure of Church assets had a financial benefit for some of the elite and gentry. English nationalism was a feature for the general public. One of the few areas of agreement between writers is that there was general support for the ascendancy of the English monarch over the Roman Pope. However, there was a debate amongst the elite about whether there should be an English form of Catholicism or a comprehensive move towards Protestantism. It is possible to argue that the outcome could have been a Church of England, which was more recognisably Catholic. Given the concentration of power that existed in the hands of the monarch and his or her immediate advisors, their motivation is key to understanding whether the change was inevitable. It is generally agreed that Henry VIII's motives were more personal and political, than religious. He wanted to divorce Catherine of Aragon and
In a period when political and religious ideas were enmeshed and differences entrenched, the ascension of a Protestant Queen to an overwhelmingly Catholic nation was precarious.
In a period when political and religious ideas were enmeshed and differences entrenched, the ascension of a Protestant Queen to an overwhelmingly Catholic nation was precarious. Despite the brevity of Mary's reign, she had managed legislatively to reassemble Catholicism to a largely grateful people. Following a decade of religious oscillation and volatile foreign relations, Elizabeth's religious settlement was not only fluid and ecumenical but also only demanded outward obedience. It may have instituted quasi-Catholic church vestments and aesthetics, however the settlement punished those who were publicly defiant and refused to comply with its Protestant practices. When discussing the actual threat English and continental Catholics posed, one must be wary of the exaggerated accounts by Protestants with vested interests, such as Walter Mildmay and the Earl of Leicester. By the cessation of Mary's reign, Catholicism had been re-established with the support of an inherently conservative people. Revisionists such as Williams refute traditionalist claims, asserting that England was "still largely Catholic" in 1558. There was an ardent Protestant minority in Southern England and key Protestants such as John Foxe returned from exile. In order to gauge how much of a threat Catholicism was, it is necessary to consider the perceived threat (and who shaped this perception), the
A Report On Jon Venables and Robert Thompson After Being Set Free To Lead a Normal Lives.
Report By Sophia Johnson A REPORT ON JON VENABLES AND ROBERT THOMPSON AFTER BEING SET FREE TO LEAD A NORMAL LIVES. (Sophia Johnson) On the afternoon of February 12, 1993, in a shopping centre in Merseyside in north-western England, just outside of Liverpool), two ten-year-olds took two-year-old James Bulger and a long walk which ended his life. Eight years after the horrific murder of James Bulger, the two culprits Jon Venable and Robert Thompson have been set free with new identities to lead normal lives. This has brought up a number of questions some of which are... 'Was justice served on behalf of James Bulger?' and 'Will the two young men Jon Venable and Robert Thompson be able to led real free lives?' The report from The Sunday Times and that from The Mail On Sunday about the characters of Jon Venable and Robert Thompson are very similar. They are similar in the sense that they both highlight the same aspects of the two young men's characters. In both reports, reference is made to the failure of both boys to be able to interact well with the public. The reports also highlight the insecurity and fearfulness in both Venables and Thompson; both of then are afraid of being discovered at some point and the retribution they will face if they are discovered. The two articles also make a particular reference to the academic performances of both boys. This portrays the two
Who Were the Puritans?
Jaimie Grose Colonial American Literature Professor Shannon September 19, 2002 Who Were the Puritans? IN 1572, "a group of reformers in the House of Commons" brought forward a bill calling for the legalization of nonconformity of the kind called "Puritan." Queen Elizabeth, however, suppressed the bills concerning religion. They could no longer be introduced "without her approval." These reformers did, however, bring their concerns into the open (Vaughn 3). Puritans were a people who did not believer in the laws of men. Rather, they followed strictly the laws of God. It was believed, by many Kings and Queens, that they were chosen by God to rule over their people. This included making laws. The Church of England was also the church that everyone had to attend by law. James I made good strides when he used some Puritan ideas in his King James Version of the Bible (1611), however, it was not a Puritan document. Puritanism remained underground (Vaughn 13). "As Puritanism and the ideas that went along with Puritanism spread, the determination of the Anglican establishment to stop nonconformist movement grew." The government used different methods of trying to discourage the Puritans including, "issuing decrees against unorthodox practices, increasing supervision over local clergymen, and removing ministers from their livings" (Vaughn 20). Then, in 1629, Charles I
To what extent was Elizabeth I able to create a positive image throughout her reign?
To what extent was Elizabeth I able to create a positive image throughout her reign? Elizabeth I is most famous for her image as the Virgin Queen and Gloriana. Until recently historians have almost always seen Elizabeth as an amalgamation of these two images, and have scarcely questioned whether or not they were just illusions, or reality. The question of how well Elizabeth I lived up to her image, and how well she maintained it throughout her reign, especially in later years, has now become a topic that historians have a wide range of theories and answers about, that don't necessarily correspond. The assumption is that Elizabeth I created her own image, but there is debate over whether or not she did so. She strengthened it with her speeches and actions, but to a degree it was forced upon her at the beginning of her reign, and councillors advised her what direction to take a lot of the time. Elizabeth came to the throne in 1558 having being called a bastard, and "daughter of a whore" from the age of three. Catholics believed her illegitimate and Mary Queen of Scots the rightful heir, whilst her gender presented a great problem in Tudor patriarchal society. As a woman she was now associated with the largely disastrous reign of her sister Mary I, which didn't add to people's acceptance of female rulers. Although devout catholics would always see her as an illegitimate
How, and why, were Puritans portrayed on the Elizabethan and Jacobean Stage?
How, and why, were Puritans portrayed on the Elizabethan and Jacobean Stage? In discussing Puritanism in this period we are immediately faced with the problem of definition. 'Puritan' was initially a term of abuse for the militant Protestants who sought further reform within the church. Initially the reformers were strongly influenced by Calvinist doctrines and they called for increased attention to preaching, the study and interpretation of the Bible and the simplification of elaborate rights. The Puritan movement seemed to be one of degrees rather than of type. Within the movement, itself a branch of the Anglican church, could be found people from various classes, ranging from those with Puritan sympathies to the radical reformers. It is seen as a religious and moral temper rather than a structured movement. The attack on the stage was initiated by some of the more militant Puritans, but the rebuttal of the dramatists seemed to treat all Puritans in the same way. The attack on the playhouses began in Elizabeth's reign with Puritans protesting against the building of theatres, although at this point their objections came to nothing. After this many tracts were produced warning about the evil and ungodly teachings of plays. In his Anatomie of Abuses of 1583 Philip Stubbes strongly condemns stage plays.1 He claims that they 'maintaine bawdrie, insinuate foolery, and
How far was the church in need of reform during your chosen period of study?
03/04/2001 How far was the church in need of reform during your chosen period of study? During the 15-th and 16-th Century the Roman Catholic Church throughout Europe dominated most aspects of life and government. The clergy published the majority of books that were read therefore they had a strong influence over the religious beliefs and practices of those from higher social classes. Those who could not read where reached through the pulpit at Mass. The Roman Catholic Church also had considerable wealth due to taxes such as the tithe. Power over monarchs could also be asserted as on many occasions the Church had aided bankrupt monarchs. However, due to the wealth and power it had obtained the Church had forgotten its fundamental role for providing spiritual leadership and the pursuit of eternal salvation. An example of this would be the Medici family who provided many Popes. Instead of bestowing proper leadership upon the clergy and their flocks, they promoted their own family interests. The Historian B. Reardon suggests that the Papacy was the central cause for the Reformation in the 16-th Century, they had failed to show proper spiritual and moral leadership. Allowing the spread of incompetence and corruption throughout the rest of the church. Bishops failed to attend their duties in their diocese and were reluctant to fulfil their duty of monitoring their clergy. The
Which was the greater threat to Elizabeth's Church, Puritans or Catholics?
Nadim Haji 13.4 22/02/04 History Essay - Mr White Which was the greater threat to Elizabeth's Church, Puritans or Catholics? From the beginning of her reign Elizabeth made her mark as the new ruler of England. However if it was not foreign invasion or an internal plot she feared, then it was being a single woman in a mans world, and amidst all this Elizabeth sought acceptance from her people. Now along with all of this Elizabeth had to juggle the impending danger of various religious groups threatening not only her but also the entire kingdom, and not to mention its potential for a civil war. Elizabeth saw religion as 'the ground on which all other matters ought to take root...' and this meant that she took it very seriously, and an attack or threat to her church was also one on her. Both Puritans and Catholics surrounded Elizabeth wherever she went, and few were public about the views, which made the threat an even bigger danger as it could not be met head on. The Puritans, who were considered the great threat to Elizabeth's uniformity, existed largely in the House of Commons. They predominantly had a disliking for the Settlement and being in parliament was the ideal place to express their 'views'. This was certainly the way the Puritans in parliament were wanting things to go, because it meant that they would now be able to attempt to influence and reform the
Queen Elizabeth 1st on Religion.
Queen Elizabeth 1st on Religion. This document is a first hand document : it's actually a letter sent by Queen Elisabeth to some English bishops. Thus, it reflects her intention in matter of religious policy at the beginning of the her reign in 1558. Indeed, she inherited the situation left by her half-sister Mary : she had to make an short-term choice, either to stay in a Catholic Nation, or to restore Supremacy, in other words, follow or not Mary's policies. In 1559, several bishops of the Church of England asked Elisabeth for a meeting : they wanted to Continue Mary's pro catholic policies, and claimed Henry the 8th had been quarrelled with the Pope because of the influence of heretics. Her answer "as to your entreaty for us to listen to you we wave it" (line 1) is the proof that she is not about to renounce Supremacy, or create a Catholic Nation under direct control of Rome domination. This letter is then the basis of her policy followed intensely throughout her forty-five year long reign. This document is basically composed of two distinct paragraphs, one dealing with a remote period in English history, namely the very introduction of Christianity in England, and the other one dealing with a much more recent period, i.e. the break with Rome allegiance, and Henry 8, Edward 6, and Mary's respective reigns. * * * The Queen in her letter is addressing the bishops, and
HISTORIA DE LA LENGUA INGLESA
INTRODUCCIÓN A LA HISTORIA DE LA LENGUA INGLESA *?Periodización en la H.L.I. Blake editó en 1996 un manual que establecía elementos nuevos en la historia de la lengua, y establece así su periodización: Old English (OE): el inglés antiguo es el primer periodo tradicional de la lengua y abarca desde el S.V al S.XI. No comienza antes porque no existía el idioma inglés, cuando se emplea el término inglés se hace referencia a una lengua germánica. Sin embargo en UK había poblados celtas en donde surge el término británico, fueron invadidos por los germánicos y es ahí cuando se empieza a hablar del inglés. No se puede estudiar el inglés antes del S.V, a pesar de que la población sí estaba. En el S.V llegan tribus occidentales de origen germánico, se habla de tres tribus, de las cuales dos son importantes: los anglos y los sajones. Y es de la combinación de estas palabras de donde procede el término anglosajón. Cuando llegan las tribus, y una vez pasado cierto tiempo, la lengua deja de parecerse a sus raíces occidentales para convertirse en lengua autóctona. Las lenguas insulares se mantienen aunque con ligeras diferencias. En el periodo anglosajón hay varios reinos, 4 centrales; pero en el S.IX otra población acude para asentarse: los vikingos. A diferencia de los germanos, éstos se portan mejor y no pretenden saquear el pueblo sino