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University Degree: 1500-1599

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 3
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    Why did witch hunting become so intensive in late sixteenth century England?

    3 star(s)

    The Dominican monk who wrote "Malleus Maleficium"4 in 1486 derived femina from "Fe" and "Minus" because according to them women were "deceitful" and "imperfect" (made from the "bent" rib of Adam), and the Dominican monks said women were "ever weaker to hold and preserve the faith" than men were. The contemporary Eliphas L�vi, who had been a celibate priest but had left the priesthood, said women were better at sorcery because "they are more easily transported by excess of passion."

    • Word count: 3025
  2. Marked by a teacher

    "From her arrival in 1568, Mary Stuart posed a major threat to the security of Elizabeth and her government". How far do you agree with this judgement?

    3 star(s)

    The reason why this is the paramount threat to Elizabeth is because of the number of people who had grievances against the religion and saw Mary Stuart as the way to gain their religion back. Tied into this is the political danger of those Nobles who also had Catholic sympathies but were also in a position to challenge Elizabeth i.e. the Duke of Norfolk who was under demands from Mary Stuart to gain her release from prison by force if needed.

    • Word count: 1814
  3. Marked by a teacher

    Was there a decisive change in ideas about masculinity and femininity

    Men were seen to have a predominance of hot, dry humours whilst women were cold and wet. Men and women were seen as essentially the same, the female reproductive organs being perceived as an inverted version of the male which, due to their cold temperament, remained inside the body whilst the males descended. "Men and women, according to this line of thinking, were not different; rather the female body was an inferior or imperfect version of the male."2 The balance of humours was also said to cause men and women's differing natures.

    • Word count: 2688
  4. What were the major problems facing the eighteenth-century French Monarchy?

    The path to Spain gaining an empire was provided by the voyages of Christopher Columbus. He sailed west in the hope of finding a new and easier route to Asia. "Columbus believed that if he sailed due west, on a course of 270 degrees, he would hit the great island of Cipangu"2 . Contrary to his beliefs he stumbled on a yet unknown land mass that he believed to be Asia. The first attempts of establishing Empire in the New World produced little valuable commodities, and as a result the colonists in the Caribbean Islands exploited a new form of feudalism, encomienda, to supply cheap and reliable labour from the natives, as his promise of "oro sin cuento"3 (incalculable gold)

    • Word count: 1607
  5. In what ways has Roman Catholicism been an example of both religious tradition and dissent in England?

    Part 2 - Essay The Roman Catholic Church was widely unchallenged in England until 1533. It was at this point that the annulment of King Henry VIII's marriage to Catherine of Aragon was denied. Henry VIII proceeded to sever all ties with Rome and in doing so turned his back on the many centuries of tradition of the Roman Catholic Church, an action which would, over the following 3 centuries, cause much unrest and political upheaval. It is at this point then that the dissent from the traditions of the Roman Catholic Church in England began.

    • Word count: 1370
  6. Was female rule unacceptable in early modern Europe? This narrative will be investigating the political and royal policies of early modern Europe and its reasoning behind preferring (and insisting) that only male royal blood lines shou

    The majority of Spain, Portugal and Italy remained virtually wholly Roman Catholic, which lead to many wars and disputes with bordering nations. The Royal policy of the time was to use marriage to cement literal boarders between neighbouring countries in an effort to create great nations, and also to make intangible connections that cemented power between nations creating beneficial alliances. Political and social opinion of women at the time was largely due to the writings of St. Paul in the New Testament regarding Adam and Eve, and how Eve carried out the first human sin, disobeyed God and tempted Adam with the apple.

    • Word count: 1634
  7. ormative Assesment. A critical analysis of Charles V & Philip his Son by Marino Cavalli, 1554.

    "His Highness is now in his twenty-fourth year, of very delicate complexion and medium stature. In both face and mind he resembles his father.." This is the first, and last positive evaluation he makes about Philip. It becomes clear very quickly that he harbours numerous doubts about Philip's ability to come to power and manage different countries, when he favours being advised by a solely Spanish council, who would clearly have preference for their own agenda. "He takes excessive pleasure in being revered, and he maintains with everyone, no matter who he may be, a greater haughtiness than his father,".

    • Word count: 804
  8. To what extent can Wolsey be considered the master rather than the servant in policy decisions under Henry VIII

    Gwyn (2002) suggests that Henry VII took Wolsey's opinions seriously as he was rewarded with the Deanship of Lincoln in 1509. The death of Henry VII could have been the end of Wolsey's rise, but the new King, Henry VIII, made him almoner and a member of the council (Elton, 1991). This is the point from where Wolsey's career escalated (Gwyn, 2002). In order to answer the question of Wolsey's role, it is also necessary to understand the personality and aspirations of Henry VIII.

    • Word count: 1975
  9. Assess the impact of the opening of the Atlantic World in the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries on the future economic development of the Caribbean region

    During this time the Atlantic Ocean served as a major highway, allowing people and goods to move easily between Europe, Africa and the Americas. These interactions and exchanges transformed European, African and American societies led to the creation of new peoples, cultures, economies and ideas throughout the Atlantic arena. The Atlantic World provides a comprehensive and lucid history of one of the most important cross-cultural encounters in human history. The European drive to expand, as well as the creative ways in which the peoples living along the Atlantic's borders were able to adopt and co-exist sustained the growth of empires,

    • Word count: 1815
  10. Assess the view that the Dutch rebels challenged Philip IIs rule primarily in defense of their liberties. Throughout Philips reign there were three major revolts in the Netherlands, in 1568, 1572 and 1576. These represented the interests of various

    However throughout Philip's reign 'liberty was [broadly speaking] the central issue1', combining the diversity present in all three revolts. The challenge from the regional governments was in defence of the Grandees liberty; once able to make their own decisions regarding the governing of their country, Spanish rule deprived them of this freedom. As a result 'a sort of united Netherlands was thus created'2 as the provinces joined together in their mutual contempt. However, the challenge was not just on account of the deprivation of their liberties, but as a reaction to the turmoil the Spaniards were causing by exploiting their power.

    • Word count: 2314
  11. Did the acquisition of Portugal in 1580 represent a greater success for Philip II than the victory at Lepanto in 1571?

    and El Greco's 'Allegory of the Holy League' 5 (1578). Both paintings suggest that through the victory at Lepanto Philip successfully defended Christendom from the Turkish threat. But the value of these paintings in understanding the scale of the success is diminished, because both were commissioned by Philip himself, meaning the artists were likely to have inflated the significance of the victory. In fact, contrary to Elliott's view that the victory reduced the Turkish threat, there is evidence that Lepanto had little effect on the Turkish assault on the Mediterranean.

    • Word count: 2599
  12. Anne Boleyn - historians such as G. W. Bernard, E. W. Ives and Retha Warnick are examples of scholars who continue to attempt to solve the mystery surrounding the fall of Anne Boleyn. Each attempting to answer the following questions: What events brought

    Each attempting to answer the following questions: What events brought about Anne's downfall? And, perhaps most importantly, was Anne guilty of the charges which led to her execution. In his paper, "The Fall of Anne Boleyn" historian George Bernard believes that Anne was guilty for the charges laid against her and traces her downfall to Elizabeth Browne, the Countess of Worcester. Bernard supports his theory by first discrediting historian Retha Warnicke's proposal that Anne's downfall was caused by a miscarriage in January of 1536, describing such a notion as, "extravagant speculation." Bernard recognizes that Anne and Henry's marriage was occasionally "volatile" but claims that this "does not mean that Henry had finally tired of Anne or that her miscarriage had irrevocably damned her in his eyes."

    • Word count: 1981
  13. Three Estates in France

    King Louis XVI was bombarded by a list of these grievances, or Cahier de Doleances. All grievances, no matter how absurd some may have seemed, had to be dealt with if the Monarch wanted to prevent the revolution. While Third Estate consisted mostly of peasants and merchants, it was the bourgeoisie that are credited with getting the grievances of the estate recognized. The bourgeoisie consisted of many wealthy and educated people. Many were lawyers or bankers, and landowners. At this point in history peasants were free, but lived in poverty and had to obey the remaining laws, such as state labor, and payment to the lords, but most of the peasants had owned their own land.

    • Word count: 1200
  14. In all his endeavours Leonardo favoured innovation over established knowledge and the traditions of his craft. There are examples of areas where Leonardo prevailed as a magnificent innovator, for e.g. the Sforza horse. Dedicated to the Sforza dynasty of M

    Then in Florence Leonardo learned the value of a master's skill accompanied by the talented artisans of the era There are examples of areas where Leonardo prevailed as a magnificent innovator, for e.g. the Sforza horse. Dedicated to the Sforza dynasty of Milan, aimed at his future patron Ludovico il Moro. The statue itself was a design innovation. Large statues had previously been constructed in segments, being welded, and then coated. Leonardo had planned to create a complete moulding on a grand scale.

    • Word count: 1378
  15. How did the perception of Spain as the centre of a mighty European empire change to a lame state in the early-modern period?

    Their ruling styles were often drastically different from the predecessor. Ferdinand and Isabella, the uniting force of Spain were famous for their dedication to their country, and their determination to unite it in all aspects, most particularly that of religion, forcibly converting Jews and Muslims to their own Catholic religion. Charles V took a very casual attitude towards Spain, unsurprising, considering the size of his empire, which was divided between his brother and his son upon his abdication in 1556.

    • Word count: 2528
  16. The Authority Conflict: Machiavelli & Martin Luther

    While Machiavelli described this evil characteristic of mankind as essential to get ahead of others and hold a position of authority, Luther considered it a problem that must be resolved by believing in Christ alone. Machiavelli had no notion of human development or progress in pursuit of ends ordained by God or by nature, and he did not condemn the Church because it strayed from the path of righteousness, as did Luther, but because it was not practical (Femia 39).

    • Word count: 1727
  17. Why Were Some of the English Poor Laws passed between 1531 and 1598 Controversial?

    From 1531 to 1598 there was no fewer than eleven Acts of Parliament passed in relation to the poor. The purpose of this essay is to examine these laws and explain why some are considered to be controversial, as well as looking at the implications and reasoning behind the Statutes. Most of which sought the relief of the impotent or 'deserving poor' (people unable to find work because of illness, old age etc.) and the harsh punishment of the 'undeserving poor', such as vagrants (who most often were unemployed men or women unable to find work and migrating in order to do so)

    • Word count: 2564
  18. Why was it so difficult to decide between true and false visions and apparitions in early modern Europe?

    To append to perplexity, there were scientific claims by natural magicians of visual or sensual revelations being nothing but a trick of the eye. This essay aims to suggests that leading up to the Early modern period in Europe visions and apparitions were already topic for debate yet the reformation added even more reasons to confuse the long going issue religion, philosophy and science each held its part in making the matter of deciding between true or false visions or apparitions so difficult.

    • Word count: 3185
  19. History 1500

    This leaves for less chance of the truth being blurred by the passing of time. The Diary, on the other hand, is a secondary source, this mainly because the diary was not written by Columbus himself but by Las Casas. It was also not written at the time of the voyage but sometime after allowing for some of the accounts to be lost to time. This being the case the diaries lack some of the credibility that is available from the letter making it less useful for the purpose of historical recreation.

    • Word count: 1718
  20. Difficulties faced by catholics during hte reign of Elizabeth the first

    Most people in England were reasonable about the protestant religion, but there were still some people who believed in the Old Catholic ways. Not many people wanted to fight about it, because for many years, they had to worship in one way and then that way was changed to another. Elizabeth did not have very strong views about this, so she tried to find a Middle Way, which would have pleased most people. She had taken people form the catholic religion and people from the protestant religion.

    • Word count: 897
  21. Mary Queen Of Scots Essay

    Elizabeth feared that because of this, English Catholics could rebel against her, and eventually, throw her off the throne. One of the short term causes that lead up to Mary's execution was the St. Bartholomew's day Massacre, 1572. This was when thousands of Protestants were massacred by the French Catholics. This suddenly increased Elizabeth's fear and suspicion of English Catholics and increased her hostility towards Mary. Moreover, when Catholic Priests arrived in England in the mid 1570's, Elizabeth's fear of the Catholic faith spreading was confirmed.

    • Word count: 766
  22. To what extent was Elizabeth I able to create a positive image throughout her reign?

    Although devout catholics would always see her as an illegitimate usurper, she could still persuade the majority of the English people who were more nationalistic than catholic, aswell as those who were protestant. She did this through her resemblance to Henry VIII. On the day of her coronation she wore her bright red hair down to play on the nostalgic feeling people had for her father and to emphasise her purity (hair in the style of a maiden). Derrick Murphy says that "Elizabeth herself was keen to reinforce the message that she was her father's daughter", and this, and various speeches that she made("we hope to rule, govern ...

  23. Jasmine's key worker has noticed bruising on Jasmine's legs and bottom. This could have been caused by her mobility difficulties. Despite Jasmine having cerebral palsy her injuries seem to be on the wrong part of the body

    Jasmine's key worker has also noticed that Jasmine's mum, Barbara, 'has not looked herself lately', has been late picking up the children, not dressed smartly and looks stressed. Edwards states (2002, p.15) "Adults respond to stress in different ways; and how they respond can have an effect on their capacity to offer safe care to their children." Jasmine's mum could be under stress for a number of reasons. Her husband works full time, she has three children under the age of six, one with a disability who could demand a lot of attention, Beckett (2005,p.89)

    • Word count: 2585
  24. How religious was the tenth-century reform?

    True Benedictine monasticism, asserts Blair, seems to have been almost dead in tenth-century England. The Vikings had destroyed several great and countless small minsters, while those which survived had tended towards a more secular lifestyle. Many minster priests were married with children and lived in separate houses with their families. Alfred had the century before deplored the state of learning in the Church but had failed in his attempt to effect a revival. This state of affairs was in marked contrast with the newly reformed continental houses such as Cluny and Fleury which adhered firmly to St.

    • Word count: 3391
  25. After the accession of Henry VIII, England began an inevitable change towards Protestantism, which was supported and encouraged by the English People'. How far do you agree with the appraisal of religious change that took place in England 1500-1600?

    It is generally agreed that Henry VIII's motives were more personal and political, than religious. He wanted to divorce Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn, who may provide him with a male heir. Church wealth replenished the almost bankrupt Exchequer coffers, after unsuccessful wars. Whilst his motivation was largely personal, Henry did use the opportunity to make his own religious views more influential. At Henry's death the main articles of faith were still basically Catholic, but prayers and the litany were now in English and there was greater access to the Bible in English.

    • Word count: 1715

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • To what extent can Wolsey be considered the master rather than the servant in policy decisions under Henry VIII

    "In order to answer the question of whether Wolsey was the master or the servant in policy decisions under Henry VIII, this essay has shown that although Wolsey demonstrated great skill in administration and was an exceptionally hard worker, Henry VIII was still in overall charge. Wolsey could be seen to be a sycophant, courting favour with the King in order to further his own wealth and career. During the early years of Henry's reign, it is possible that Wolsey could be seen as the master, purely because the youthful Henry was caught up in more amusing affairs. However, Henry always devised policy but left Wolsey to carry it out. Henry recognised Wolsey's abilities and utilised them, but whilst Henry could easily remove Wolsey, Wolsey as a servant of the King was not able to remove Henry. In conclusion, the evidence suggests that Henry VIII and Wolsey formed an effective partnership, but Wolsey was always Henry's servant."

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