CRITICALLY DISCUSS AND EXPLAIN HOW LAW AND POLICY ENDEAVOURS TO PROTECT THE ENVIRONMENT "One of Gov's objectives is high employment and maintaining high levels of growth: another objective is effective protection of the environment" if uncharitably regarded as competing rather than compatible critically discuss and explain how law and policy endeavours to protect the environment in light of such apparently contradictory and conflicting interests" Unlike the usually quoted1 Brundtland Report definition,2 the "apparently contradictory and conflicting interests" of economic and social development and environmental protection are synonymous with a more modern definition3 of interdependent, but mutually re-enforcing interests,4 of sustainable development (SD),5 "...meeting needs in ways which deliver social progress, protection of the environment, better resource use, economic growth and employment by having a stable and competitive economy."6 This definition, already previously used in UK and EU policies and legislation uses, a three-pillared approach7 making environmental protection marginally less important, when weighed against socio-economic development, as concentrating on present generation needs and addressing environmental damage rather than conservation of natural, possibly finite, resources for future generation's use. SD centers on economic growth and
Fall Short Essay 2010 Courtesy of: Microsoft Word(c) Clip Art Word Count: 1507 By: Renuka Boochoon TA: Michaela McMahon Course Code: ENVS 2300 Student Number: 210317212 Due Date: Friday, October 22, 2010 To understand how the environment is inherently political, 'politics' must first be defined. According to professor Ilan Kapoor at York University, politics is defined as "individual and collective action, bringing issues into the public sphere and negotiating multiple and sometimes opposing claims about these issues" (Kapoor, 2010). The environment is inherently political in that there will always be opposing views because people have different values and everyone will be affected differently by an issue (which can be a result of many factors such as culture, class, race, etc.). Professor Kapoor also defined the environment as something that is not only the natural environment; the term 'environment' can also be used to describe the social interactions happening within an institutional environment, cultural environment or social environment (Kapoor, 2010). In both contexts of 'environment', there are many uses for it (Kapoor, 2010). Thus, it inherently becomes political. An example which supports the idea that the environment is inherently political is shown in the documentary "The Golf War". In the Philippines, there is a huge dispute over farmland that citizens
ENVIRONMENTAL LAW ASSIGNMENT MAT. No. 2080529 ARE THE ENVIRONMENT LAW PRINCIPLES EFFECTIVELY REFLECTED IN GAMBIAN LAWS: DISCUSS October 2010 ARE THE ENVIRONMENT LAW PRINCIPLES EFFECTIVELY REFLECTED IN OUR LAWS: DISCUSS The environmental law and principles to be discussed in this Assignment includes: Sustainable development Polluter Pay Principle Precautionary Measures Institutional and legal framework and Multi Environmental Agreements (MEA) in the Gambia I Introduction In the 1970s and 80s Gambia developed a relatively active body of environmental legislation and according to the State of the Environment Report, the Banjul declaration of 1977 called for action to address environment and natural resources management in The Gambia. The enactment of the National Environmental Management Act (NEMA) by government in 1987 and the establishment of the National Environmental Management Council (NEMC provided the legal framework for environmental planning, management and development. This institutional arrangement led to the participatory approach in the preparation in the Gambia National Action Plan phase I and II which provides for the implementation of the international environmental and natural resources management-related conventions to which Gambia is a party to. This will be discussed later. The 9th Session of the African Ministerial Conference on the Environment
"It has been said that "an express "federal" goal was dropped from the final draft of The Treaty of European Union; nevertheless, there can be no doubt that the Union constitutes, at the very least, an embryonic federation"1. "It has also been said that "the ... concept of federalism...does not feel quite right as an explanation of the EU which... is too sui generic, too complex, too multidimensional to fit any such categorisation" 2 The interpretation of the above quotations will require a number of factors to be taken into consideration. This is in regards to analysing in depth the issues of constitutional structures, the concepts of the European Unions (EU's) current structure, the institutions and their roles. This will require analysis of authoritative sources such as The Treaty of European Union (TEU), case law and also respective views of academics. The main question proposed by the above quotations is to what extent we can say the EU is evolving into a federal structure and if it will ever become a 'united Europe.' There are a number of classifications for a constitutional structure. Firstly there is a unitary state a "structure organised under a single central government ". Secondly there is a confederation "a formal association of states loosely bound by a treaty...a central governmental mechanism with specified powers over member states but not directly over
Evaluate the rationale for green direct action and, using empirical examples, assess its effectiveness.
Evaluate the rationale for green direct action and, using empirical examples, assess its effectiveness. Twenty years ago in the UK, the phrase 'green direct action' would have probably brought to mind the audacious and publicity seeking activities of Greenpeace, such as little dinghies bobbing along next to huge ocean whalers (Carter 2001: 131); or the direct actions of Friends of the Earth, notably in the campaign to return non-returnable drinks bottles to Schweppes (Carter 2001: 138). However, by the mid-1980s most observers agreed that, although once notorious for their direct action stunts, these groups had undergone a process of institutionalisation, which had blunted their radical edge (Carter 2001: 131; Garner 2000: 145; Jordan & Maloney: 1997). The green movement became almost exclusively dominated by reformist conventional pressure strategies. However, the 1990s saw "substantial changes in the character of British environmentalism" as "environmentalism in the UK suddenly seemed to take a radical turn" (Doherty et al. 2000: 1). During the 1990s environmental direct action was hardly out of the news, as the British public became familiar with anti-road protesters perched in trees, Reclaim the Streets parties and GM crop sabotage to name just a few of the many examples (Connelly & Smith 2003: 68; Millar 1999). This sudden up-rise in green direct action leads us to ask
Report of the Contaminated land site at Harpurhey, Manchester (GR SD854 016) For the Environmental Protection Committee, Manchester City Council. 21 April 2009 Sarah Lumb Contents Site Summary 1 Pollutant Linkage 1 Significance to Human Health and the Environment 2 Site Remediation Options 3 Reccommendations 5 Site Summary The site at Harpurhey, Manchester (NGR SD 854 016) covers 4.8 hectares, much of which is polluted by various contaminants. The intended land use is for recreational purposes. Assuming this means that children will be on the site and at risk of contact with the contaminant a great extent of remediation is necessary. Area Pollutant Concentration Main Tip Area- Surface 1m of Fill Cyanide >300mg/kg Main Tip Area- Borehole 4m Below Ground Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon >800mg/kg Main Tip Area- Borehole no.5, Mainly Surface 4m Phenol 40mg/kg Organic compounds Exceeding Available Guidelines Main Tip and Around Site Zinc 2300mg/kg Copper 600mg/kg Natural Ground Below Whole Site Lead 750mg/kg Copper 210mg/kg Zinc 300mg/kg Cyanide 25mg/kg Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon 600mg/kg Phenols 3mg/kg Surface Water around Site Cyanide 75µg/l Upper Reservoir Cyanide 90µg/l River Irk North of Site Cyanide Exceeding Available Guidelines Table 1: Sumary of Contamination Pollutant Linkage The remediation strategy will
What did the Republic of Hungary require to do, to achieve an effective system of environmental law in preparation of joining the European Union?
Environmental Law Module Leader: Module Code: Economic activity inevitably stress on the environment. An effective system can help achieve a balance between these too often competing forces. Membership of the European Regime requires such an effective system of law. What did the Republic of Hungary require to do, to achieve an effective system of environmental law in preparation of joining the European Union? Student ID: Name: Research Report I began my research with hard copies. I started with recommended books on the relevant topic. First, I read Environmental Law (Bell and McGillivray). Although, I did not find the latest edition at Stratford Public Library but it was very helpful in identifying principles such as; sustainable development, precautionary principle and the 'polluter pays' principle. I carried on with the research and discovered a book on the Environmental Policy in the European Union (John McCormick), that book assisted me to obtain a wide knowledge of European environmental law. I started to search journals, European Environmental Law Reviews and the Journal of Environmental Law at London Met Library. Scanning through the headings and further reading, I located articles relating to Hungary and environmental implementation procedures. I took notes from those relevant Reviews between 1992- April 2004. Following some references from the
Enforcement and Compliance Strategies Enforcement Options Regulatory Authorities Health and safety is regulated by local authorities and the Health and Safety Executive who have a range of enforcement options available to them. The Health and Safety (Enforcing Authority) Regulations 1998 (EA Regulations) allocate the enforcement of health and safety legislation between local authoritiess and the Health and Safety Executive according to the main activity carried out on the premises. Schedule 1 outlines the activities for which the local authority is the main enforcing authority. These include retailing, wholesale distribution, office activities, catering services, residential accommodation, cosmetic service and theraputic treatments, child care and most of the consumer/leisure industry. Schedule 2 outlines the activities for which the Health and Safety Executive is the main enforcing authority, including; construction, mines/quarries, gas and electricity maintenance or repair, agricultural activities, railway operation and anything run or owned by the local authority. Basis for Enforcement of Health and Safety The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974, section 18 (1) requires the HSE to make adequate arrangements for enforcement of any relevant statutory provisions. Section 18 (4)a makes it the duty of the local authority to make adequate arrangements for the
Environmental Law Even if the European Community had been into existence since 1952, the Single European Act 1986 and the Maastricht Treaty 1992 were the first providers of some protection for the environment. Europe's environmental policy was developed throughout the Environmental Action Programmes published in 1972, 1977, 1982, 1983, 1987 and 1992. The European Community's position it is set out in Article 2 of the EC Treaty: The community shall have an its task, by establishing a common market and an economic and monetary union and by implementing common policies or activities referred to in Arts 3 and 4, to promote throughout the Community a harmonious, balanced and sustainable development of economic activities, a high level of employment and of social protection, equality between men and women, sustainable and non inflationary growth, a high degree of competitiveness and convergence of economic performance, a high level of protection and improvement of the quality of the environment, the raising of the standard of living and quality of life, and economic and social cohesion and solidarity among member states. The objectives of the EC policy are set out in the Treaty's Article 174(1): - Preserving, protecting and improving the quality of the environment - Protecting human health - Prudent and rational utilisation of natural resources - Promoting measures at
Daniel Strauss Word Count: 1,042 May 10, 2010 Animal Science 375 The Analysis and Critique of Animal Factories The reality of the modern animal factory presents a sharp and clear contrast to the types of country-dwelling farms that most people like to think of. The truth is, these stereotypical modern day farms are slowly being replaced with towering animal factories. There are no pastures, streams, or sounds of nature inside these factories. Inside these desolate factories, the changing of seasons cannot be observed, nor are there signs of sunlight to differentiate between day and night. Jim Mason and Peter Singer's book, Animal Factories, has raised a storm of controversy since its original publication in 1980. In this book, Mason and Singer address the issues involving the change in agriculture, the environment, the health of consumers, and the welfare of animals in agribusiness. First, Mason and Singer discuss many of the problems that have grown from the transition to animal factories. One of the first topics covered in their book is the extreme change that agriculture has seen since animal factories have grown in number. Mason and Singer state that big farms are getting bigger, while the number of farms is declining. This means that the very few, but largest agribusiness companies have taken control of the market. According to the two authors, the