“Ideology represents the imaginary relationship of individuals to their real conditions of existence” (Althusser). Discuss with reference to the texts on the course.
"Ideology represents the imaginary relationship of individuals to their real conditions of existence" (Althusser). Discuss with reference to the texts on the course. Each of the central characters in "Open Secrets" by Alice Munro and "Paradise Lost" by John Milton are driven and sustained by the relationship between the realities of their existence and their personal ideologies. The conflict between ideology and reality is an important theme in the work of Munro and Milton and both the obvious discrepancies and the more subtle references to this define many aspects of the plot and characterisation. An examination of the reactions of characters to the restrictions placed on them by the reality in which they exist, and their perception of this reality is fundamental to understanding the ideologies which they possess. Their ideologies are the crucial influence on the experiences and eventual fates of each character. Ultimately the question of whether or not these relationships and conflicts are resolved or overcome is the key to gaining a deeper insight into the texts, and simultaneously provides the reader with evidence of the authors' own beliefs and ideologies. In Paradise Lost, Milton makes use of the ideas of contrast and opposition in order to create a text which is highly significant of his own personal ideology and, at the same time, a beautiful and intricate piece of
Kubla Khan and its Relation to Romanticism
Kubla Khan and its Relation to Romanticism 'Kubla Khan,' by Samuel Taylor Coleridge, is one of the most enigmatic and ambiguous pieces of literature ever written. Allegedly written after a laudanum (an opiate) induced dream, the author claims to have been planning a two hundred to three hundred line poem before he got interrupted by a 'man from Porlock,' after which he had forgotten nearly all of his dream. This may have been merely an excuse, and the poem was scorned at the time for having no poetic value, one critic even going so far as to call it 'more a musical composition than a poem.' This is partly true, as the language seems to strive for an aural beauty more than a literary beauty, although it accomplishes both. Like many great artists, Coleridge has been most appreciated after his death, when his radically different works could be justified, as the ideas presented in his works hadn't been popular during his life. Coleridge's philosophy in life was very romantic, and so nearly all of his poems exemplify the romantic ideal, especially Kubla Khan. This romantic poem uses brilliant imagery and metaphors to contrast the ideals of romantic paganism with often ingratious Christianity. The vision of paganism is the first idea introduced in the poem. The super-natural reference to 'Alph,' or Alpheus as it is historically known, 'the sacred river, [which] ran/ Through
Milton's Paradise Lost - Political Satire? How does this help to understand the poem?
Milton's Paradise Lost - Political Satire? How does this help to understand the poem? Milton takes the traditional epic and transforms it with the clarity of his moral vision and with the power of his language, turning it into piece of rich and powerful verse. In the early parts of "Paradise Lost", Milton manages to convey sympathy with Satan's heroic energy, with Satan's rebellion against Milton's god seen as an epic battle where the devil and his followers are banished to the external and horrid place of hell. Satan describes the "hell within him" wherever he goes and, yet as the epic narrative progresses, the allegiance subtly shifts to Christ's message of love and a vision of Paradise free of Satan's destructive force. Milton believe that the proper end to all activities should be in God or goodness, based on this central belief of good and evil and its association with the Augustine concept of the 'chain of being'. Milton beliefs in a heaven, chaos and hell, as clearly defined entities, are more consistent with poetic myth rather a rational, scientific belief although Milton had visited Galileo, and the concept of physical space and the Universe clearly influenced his thoughts. Milton's blindness prevents him from seeing any light, except in strong symbolic terms, as the light of God illuminates and inspires the mind. Milton makes references to the greatest classical
Lesley Williams Dr. A. MacDonald Smythe English 103 27th November, 2007. Enormously popular since the early publication of her poems, Emily Dickinson has enjoyed an ever-increasing critical reputation, and she is now widely regarded as one of America's best poets. It is true that Dickinson's themes are universal, but her particular vantage points tend to be very personal as if she rebuilt her world inside the products of her poetic imagination and this is why some of her knowledge of her life and her cast of mind is essential for illuminating much of her work. In many poems, she preferred to conceal the specific causes and nature of her deepest feelings, especially experiences of suffering, and her subjects flow so much into one another in language and conception that often it is difficult to tell if she is writing about people or God, nature or society, spirit or art. However, in face of the difficulty of many of her poems and the contradictory general impression made by her work and personality, Dickinson's popularity is a great tribute to her genius. Furthermore, my main objective is to provide a detailed biography of this author and a critical analysis of selected poems I have chosen to discuss in this essay. Emily Dickinson (1830-1886) was born in Amherst, Massachusetts where she spent her whole life, most of it in the large meadow-surrounded house called
A Study of Traherne's Metaphysical Poetry
A Study of Traherne's Metaphysical Poetry It is more than mere coincidence that the two poets who have produced the greatest visions of Paradise in the history of English literature both composed their works in the same twenty-five year period. The first - John Milton, needs very little introduction, while the second is the lesser known seventeenth century religious poet Thomas Traherne. Traherne's poetry, only uncovered at the end of the nineteenth century, has been quickly disregarded by many critics who consider Traherne an unrefined blend of Herbert and Vaughan. This hasty dismissal of Thomas Traherne as a poet in his own right seems a little unfair. Rather than judging Traherne's poetry by the preconceived standards we use to judge the likes of Herbert and Vaughan, his poetry should be analysed independently. Graham Parry, writing in his book, Seventeenth Century Poetry, states that Traherne's works record `the essentials of a life of praise and delight within a recovered Eden'1 This underlying theme of Paradise was one that was to dominate the mid-seventeenth century. It is not chance that Traherne and Milton emerged from the same period. Amidst the fervent atmosphere of the English Civil War there was much expectation that Christ would return to restore an Earthly Paradise. At a time when institution was collapsing many of the creative minds in England sought God
Jean-Baptiste Molire's Don Juan has all the outward appearances of seventeenth-century French farce - the stage settings are surreal, the costumes are ludicrous, and the wordplay is witty.
James S. Bowling Dr. Candyce Leonard MALS 775 2 February 2005 Molière's Don Juan: A Man Behaving Badly "He is the greatest rascal the earth has ever held, this madman, dog, devil, Turk, and heretic..." - Sganarelle, Don Juan Jean-Baptiste Molière's Don Juan has all the outward appearances of seventeenth-century French farce-the stage settings are surreal, the costumes are ludicrous, and the wordplay is witty. The particulars have their origins in Molière's years of experience directing a troupe of traveling actors in southern France. Appealing to a popular audience, Molière adopts the format of the Commedia dell'Arte, the troupes of traveling Italian actors that present farce with a maximum of gesture and mime and a minimum of dialogue. Despite the trappings of farce, Don Juan has very serious elements, ones designed to elucidate the character of the protagonist, his relationship with the world, and his impact on those he deals with. It is Molière's genius to join these elements to themes that attract a more aristocratic (and presumably more sophisticated) audience in the nation's capital. In many respects, Don Juan is a man apart and totally self-contained. Just as Satan, in Milton's Paradise Lost preferred to "reign in Hell rather than serve in Heaven," so Don Juan is adamant to follow his own life prescriptions-no matter what the outcome-rather than
The Dualistic Genesis of Paradise Lost
Mary Kline Doctor Martin English 3210, Section 301 23 Nov 04 The Dualistic Genesis of Paradise Lost In The Role of the Reader, Umberto Eco points out that ideological bias can lead a reader to interpretations employing codes not envisaged by the sender. The task, then, is to affirm one's bias clearly at the beginning, and then infer away. In this paper the Fall of Man in Paradise Lost is filtered and interpreted through two matrices not intended by John Milton; that of Semiotics, and that of Buddhist psychology. This paper, therefore, is a humble attempt to see if this interpretation will yield new insight into the human condition in its pre- and post-lapsarian state. Eco (1984), citing the classical definition of a sign, aliquid stat pro aliquo, points out that the correlation by which the sign stands for the signified can be of diverse forms. This paper will primarily have as focus the; "sign [that] is a manifest indication from which inferences can be made about something latent" (Eco, 1984:15); an example of which being footprints as sign of a person's passage. Linguistic "signs" may also take part in this relationship. In Paradise Lost, JohnMilton, retelling the tale of Genesis, posits a number of characters, places and objects: God, Satan, Heaven, Hell, Eden, Adam, Eve, two trees of intense significance, and a sweet fruit with a bitter aftertaste, amongst many
A Voice of Internal Conflict.
A Voice of Internal Conflict The most insightful and interesting stanzas can be found in a lyric poem. In this type of poetry, the voice in the writing is essentially that of the poet. An accurate example of this is "A Far Cry from Africa" by Derek Walcott. The attitudes of the speaker in this poem represent the same sentiments and experiences of the author himself. Walcott is a man of African descent, raised in the Caribbean on the ex-British colony island of St. Lucia1. This history of growing up in an English environment, aware of an opposing descent, influenced the life and work of Walcott. In this poem, he expresses the theme through the speaker's attitude, perception of his environment, internal conflict, and the tone and mood that are created by these elements. The feelings of the speaker toward the subject of the poem are very clear. He openly criticizes the brutality between the Africans and the colonial settlers. The language of the poem demonstrates that the speaker is angry at the entire situation and judgmental of both parties involved. Phrases such as "Corpses are scattered through a paradise" (4) and "his wars dance.."(19) combine the presence of violence with positive concepts. The speaker is mocking the brutality by describing it using the words "paradise" and "dance", that are normally associated with celebration and bliss. He refuses to accept the motives
Compare the ways that vultures are portrayed and used in the poems by Margaret Atwood and Chinua Achebe
Compare the ways that vultures are portrayed and used in the poems by Margaret Atwood and Chinua Achebe Achebe and Atwood appear to be writing about vultures, but are actually commenting on something different. Both poets compare vultures to humanity but Atwood's poem describes vultures in a good ways whereas Achebe describes vultures in a bad way. In Achebe's poem the first section talks about vultures. On the whole it portrays them to be evil and dark but then suggests that humans are no better than vultures. Achebe uses a lot of dark negative words to portray vultures in the first section of the poem, he uses dark words that are, "greyness", "drizzle" and "despondent" to set the scene, this shows that the vultures live in a dark habitat. This first section of the poem uses good imagery to set the scene. The next two lines suggest a stereotypical part of a vultures home, on a dead tree. "Dead" suggests that the vultures have killed the tree as well as other animals. Achebe then describes the vultures themselves and uses mostly negative words, such as "bashed in head", "bone", "corpse" and "trench." Bone and corpse suggests death which represents the vultures to be bad and related with death. Bashed in head shows that vultures are ugly which makes a negative atmosphere and image. But Achebe also uses some positive words like "affectionately", "mate" and "perching."
How does Gaskell use setting and location to reveal the character of her heroine, Margaret Hale?
How does Gaskell use setting and location to reveal the character of her heroine, Margaret Hale? The final title of her novel 'North and South', suggests the important role setting and location play in Gaskell's story of Margaret Hale and her relationship with Milton mill-owner John Thornton. During the course of the novel, we see Margaret settled in three locations; Harley Street, Helstone and Milton. Each of these settings represents a different social stratum and we see Margaret develop in her perception and attitude towards each of them. They all contribute, in some way, to making Margaret the girl that she is at the end of the novel. The book opens in Harley Street, where we are presented with the character of Edith. Edith's role in the novel is to act as a contrast to Margaret or 'control sample'. Through her, we can see what Margaret's life would have been like had she accepted Lennox. Edith is the model Victorian woman and she fits in perfectly with her Harley Street surroundings, but Margaret is far more independent, strong-minded and unconventional. When having her lover describe her future life in Corfu, "the very parts which made Margaret glow as she listened, Edith pretended to shiver and shudder at...because anything of a gipsy or make-shift life was really distasteful to her. Margaret, on the other hand appears to be ill at ease with the superficial attitudes