History Essay "Has scientific thinking benefitted medicine?" Obviously, I think that this statement is true. Scientific thinking has benefitted medicine greatly over the years and will continue to do so well into the 21st century. It can be argued that scientific thinking began in Ancient Egypt, when the role of the priest and the role of the doctor were separated for the first time. This was the beginning of scientific thinking, when religion was separated from medicine. It had been acknowledged that religion could not cure all diseases, although the Egyptians continued to worship gods as a kind of "back-up" cure, just in case the practical method did not work. This was known as the Dual Approach. The Egyptians can claim to be the first civilisation to have a doctor whose name was recorded. Imhotep treated patients in Ancient Egypt in about 2700 BC. The Egyptians came up with a few ideas as to how diseases were caused. They still believed that angering a god could cause diseases, but they also looked for more practical ways. One of these ideas was that the body was made up of channels, rather like the River Nile, and that if one of these channels became blocked, then it could cause disease. As well as coming up with rational and scientific, to an extent, ideas, they came up with practical ways of dealing with disease or injuries. To treat a broken nose, they would clean
Gene therapy is a right of developed societies to keep their children healthy Gene therapy has already been taken to keep the next generation healthy in most developed countries such as Canada, United States, United kingdom and Australia, etc. Gene therapy can act as the medical treatment to cure and prevent the diseases rather than the drug. Gene therapy can be defined as "the use of genetic material (usually deoxyribonucleic acid - DNA) to manipulate a patient's cells for the treatment of an inherited or acquired disease" (American Society of Gene Therapy, 2003a,Internet). Therefore the story of gene therapy was started from the discovery of deoxyribonucleic (DNA) in 1817 from the sperm of trout from the Rhine River. And the first successfully experiment recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that is the earlier form of gene therapy was taken in 1972 in the laboratory of Paul Berg at Stanford University. (Burck & Larrick, 1991). However the concept of gene therapy was presented in the late 1970s. (American Society of Gene Therapy, 2003a,Internet). Gene therapy is a very complicate medical treatment, which is included a wide range of technologies and processes to restore the diseases. Basically it can be divided into three parts: gene insertion, gene modification and gene substitution. Firstly, gene insertion means a normal copy of the gene will be inserted into a
Introduction Breast implants are a growing controversy among many women in today's society. A breast implant is a foreign object inserted into the body for cosmetic purposes (Webster). Each year the number of implants received by women nearly double in numbers and top the statistic charts. In 2004 alone, an average of 262,000 women received breast implants for cosmetic purposes (Alagna). This number has increased by nearly twice the amount from the previous year, 2003 (Alagna). The growing population of women who will receive breast implants in year 2005 will increase by 12% from 2004 (Alagna). The surgery alone is not what might turn women off from receiving the implants; the outrageous costs of the implants along with the additional fees are astronomical. The average cost today for breast implants ranges anywhere from $5,000.00-$8,000.00 (Henry et al). The implant itself is not what necessarily costs the most, the fees that the doctors' charge to actually perform the surgery is the expensive part. "I will be paying off my (sic) $6,500.00 in payments for my breasts over the course of the next three years." (Capps). Some women may want to receive the implants but may not be able to afford them. Thousands of women receive breast implants each year without fully understanding the risks, possible deformities, and knowledge of the different types of implants involved in the
Obesity is linked to heart disease, diabetes and cancer Obesity is fast becoming the one of the West's most serious health problems. The number of people who are obese is rising rapidly throughout the world, making obesity one of the fastest developing public health problems. The World Health Organisation has described the problem of obesity as a "worldwide epidemic". It is estimated that around 250 million people worldwide are obese, about 7% of the adult population Obesity develops gradually over a period of time as weight is gained. Weight gain occurs when the amount of energy (calories) consumed as food and drink exceeds the energy which is used for exercise and other metabolic processes of the body. This is known as positive energy balance. The excess energy is stored principally as fat. Each kilogram of fat stores approximately 9000kcal. This fat can only be lost when the body requires more energy than is available from food and thus draws upon its energy stores. This is known as negative energy balance. Energy balance is tightly regulated in most people and does not usually require conscious control. A change in life circumstances that alters either the diet (and thus energy intake) or activity (and thus energy expenditure) can lead to weight gain or loss. It is often difficult to identify these changes as only a small imbalance can lead gradually, but
Epidemiological data and demographic data Introduction What is epidemiology: Epidemiology is the study and investigation of the distribution and causes of disease. Evaluatio
Epidemiological data and demographic data Introduction What is epidemiology: Epidemiology is the study and investigation of the distribution and causes of disease. Evaluations of distributions of a disease may include the investigation of geographical distributions, and in toxic tort personal injury claims, where epidemiological studies are important and necessary, the studies are used to evaluate whether exposures to specific chemicals or products are risk factors for the development of the disease. Epidemiology does not establish causation per se between an individuals exposure and their disease, but the discipline helps in identifying and understanding risk factors that may have an inference of association with the disease. Study designs There are a variety of different epidemiological study designs. Some studies follow people though time, evaluating those exposed to a risk factor and comparing them for disease outcome with similarly matched people who are not exposed. Other study designs look at populations of people at a point in time, and evaluating the disease outcome. Retrospective study designs go back in time and follow persons exposed in a particular activity to evaluate patterns and disease outcome. Regardless of the particular study design, epidemiological studies are important for identifying, evaluating and understanding risk factors that may be associated
PSE Coursework Drug abuse can kill! Introduction Drug abuse kills - My key question. This will be my hypothesis. I have chosen this key question because I have a lot of information and drug leaflets/books on drug abuse and how it kills its abusers. I already have some leaflets on death caused by drug abuse, but I still need more information on this subject. I'll collect more information on drug abuse from my library (John Harvard library) and the chemist close to borough station. My mother will also get me some general drug information which I will use to explain the functions of different drugs, what their medical use it and what their abusive use does. After the I finish the drug information, I will show some pictures of victims of drug abuse and a plotted map with the place which contains the most drug abusers. Drugs information. The types of drugs: Barbiturates - Barbiturates are any group of drugs that depress brain function, they come from barbituric acid, a combination of urea and malonic acid. Depending on the dosage or formulation, they can have a sedative, sleep-inducing, anticonvulsant or anaesthetic effect. Short acting barbiturates such as thiopental are injected to induce rapid anaesthesia before surgery. Phenobarbital, a long acting barbiturate, is prescribed with other with other medications to prevent epileptic seizures. Other barbituric acids,
FAST Focused Abdominal Sonography for Trauma 4 Views: Morison's Pouch Spenorenal Recess Subxiphoid, Parasternal Suprapubic GALLOP RHYTHM n : an abnormal heart rhythm marked by the occurrence of three distinct sounds in each heartbeat like the sound of a galloping horse S3 is the sound of the blood rushing into the ventricle and striking the muscular wall as the ventricle fills passively in relaxation after the pumping stroke is finished. S4 is the thump made by the contraction of the atria Suggests CARDIAC FAILURE, Left Ventricular dysfunction, elevated bNP, LVEF < 50%, Primary valvular disease with elevated filling pressures. CN III Acuity Field Light Accomodation Fundoscopy Pelvic # High riding/ Boggy prostate Blood urethral meatus Scrotal Hematoma Vaginal bleed Hematuria Earle sign (large hematoma or palpable # line on rectal exam) Destot sign (hematoma over inguinal lig, on proximal thigh or over perineum) Grey Turner sign Coccyx # Ring Cushion Shenton's Line (superior pubic ramus, neck of femur) Bohler's Angle (calcaneum) #femur subcapital transcervical intertrochanteric peritrochanteric (extracapsular) Lipohaemarthrosis joint effusion with fat / blood fluid level ** intra-articular # present #fibula Danis-Weber's classification # calcaneum first line from anterior process of the calcaneus to the peak of the posterior articular
Pneumonia is a medical condition that describes a result of a variety of diseases in which the small, air-filled sacs in the lung responsible for absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere are flooded with fluid. There
This sicknes There are many different causes of deaths out there. One of the major causes of death is diseases. There many different kinds of them out there. The number seven leading cause of death from a disease is pneumonia. In 2002, 64,954 people died of pneumonia (Pneumonia Facts Sheet). This is an infection of the lung that is either from bacteria, funguses, viral, or parasites. This is a very deadly infection if it goes untreated will kill you. Many people in the world die from this every year without even knowing that they even have it. At one point of my life I went into the hospital with severe chest pains. When I got there I found out that I had pneumonia in a quarter of one of my lungs and a little bit in my other lung. I will tell you it defiantly scared me to know end. So with this paper I am going to explain this disease and all of it consequences. Pneumonia is a medical condition that describes a result of a variety of diseases in which the small, air-filled sacs in the lung responsible for absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere are flooded with fluid. There are many different kinds of pneumonia, but the most common type results from infection of the lung by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites. Other types can occur as a result of chemical or physical irritation of the lungs. Pneumonia is a common illness and occurs in all age groups.
In my essay I will attempt to explain schizophrenia and the symptoms of the disorder. I will also describe and evaluate evidence that has been put forward to attempt to explain what causes the disorder.
In my essay I will attempt to explain schizophrenia and the symptoms of the disorder. I will also describe and evaluate evidence that has been put forward to attempt to explain what causes the disorder. First of all I will explain what schizophrenia is even if some deny that schizophrenia exists (see for example Laing; Foucault; Scheff). Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness and the odds that a person will develop this illness at some time in his life are one in a hundred. Schizophrenia comes from the Greek skhizo, to split, and phren, mind. But schizophrenia is not a split personality or multiple personality disorder (i.e. movies like "The three faces of Eve" and "Sibyl" also "Jekyl and Hyde") as most people may think, it is a distorted view of reality. It is now considered that schizophrenia is a variety of illnesses, in each of which there may be somewhat different symptoms and for which the causes may also are different. What exactly causes schizophrenia is at the moment unknown. Researchers have looked at all possibilities - physical factors, genetic inheritance, biochemical differences, social factors, and psychological explanations. Those suffering from the psychosis schizophrenia have such severe disturbances of emotion and thinking that they are out of touch with reality. The illness occurs in all walks of life and it affects generally people in the late teens
Muscular Dystrophy Muscular dystrophy is characterized by the progressive weakening of skeletal muscles. Patients with this genetic disorder will go through three stages. Firstly, the increase of muscle weakness, secondly, the reduction in muscle mass and thirdly the complete loss of muscle function. In the 3rd stage the patient will be confined to a wheelchair. Four forms of the disease are recognized and based on > pattern of inheritance > age when symptoms are first noted > distribution of the muscles earliest involved In the Duchenne form of the disease, symptoms are usually prominent from about 2 to 6 years of age. The muscles first affected are those of the pelvis and trunk, resulting in spinal deformity and a waddling way of walking. By the late teens, the wasting of almost all muscle groups may be advanced. Calf muscles often enlarge. Survival is rare beyond the late twenties and death may result from respiratory weakness or from involvement of the heart muscle. Because inheritance of this form is by an X-linked recessive mechanism (females are carriers), virtually all sufferers are boys. The facio-scapulo-humeral form of the disease affects both sexes equally and results in weakness and wasting of the shoulders, upper arms and facial muscles. It is usually distinguished around the commencement of puberty. The majority of patients remain able to walk until an