• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Choose either the Philippines or California and explain why it is considered a disaster hotspot. (15 marks)

Extracts from this document...


´╗┐Exam Question Choose either the Philippines or California and explain why it is considered a disaster hotspot. (15 marks) A disaster hotspot is a place where they not only have a high vulnerability, but also a number of different hazards (e.g. hydrometeorological and geomorphic ones). The Philippines is vulnerable to disasters because they?re a lower-middle income country, with majority of the people living in poverty and near the coast. This implies that they lack sufficient infrastructure to protect them against hazards and that many of these people are involved in agriculture (subsistence farmers) in order to generate some income. In addition, the Philippines is a densely populated area as the country average is 240 people per km2, and the megacities population can go up to 2000 people per km2 so their main loss is of mortality rather than economic loss. ...read more.


Steep relief and many hills mean landslides and further lahars are sometimes a result from earthquakes. Deforestation and land degradation has lead to increased vulnerability for secondary hazards i.e. landslides and also flash flooding during typhoons. Deforestation increases the magnitude of flooding because plants and trees hold the soil together and absorb water in their roots so reduce the amount of water in the soil. The vegetation causes intervention so the water doesn?t flow all the way down the hills. Removing vegetation, by slash and burn, however causes flash flooding to be increased. The climate in the Philippines is very moist and they live in a very warm climate with warm ocean temperatures above 26 degrees. ...read more.


For majority of Philippians, drought does therefore act as a disaster whenever it does come. Tsunami?s also act as a disaster because the bulk of the Philippines is exposed to coast because it?s made up of many islands. Tsunamis are also a tertiary hazard after a volcanic eruption because they can follow up from an earthquake. As the islands are scattered, the risk is reduced though. The Philippines meet the criteria for being a disaster hotspot, and the government have recently established organisations to try and forecast certain hazards such as landslides. New structural programmes of defence are now also being planned to help people face the huge range of hazards they have to face. They hope to reduce their vulnerability, as they are aware that the hazard number cannot be changed. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Hazardous Environments section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Hazardous Environments essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Explain the increasing frequency of Hydro-meteorological Hazards.

    3 star(s)

    El Nino can affect people, animals and also the environment in many different ways. Following the 1997- 1998 El Nino event in Peru, there were periods of prolonged and exceptionally heavy rainfall over parts of South America. This caused destructive floods, which caused much damage.

  2. Mount St. Helens - Natural disasters.

    April 5 - At least three explosions sent ash to about 15,000 feet. Low concentrations of sulphur dioxide were detected in erupted plumes. Four earthquakes of magnitude 4.0 or larger were recorded. At 6:00 a.m. sixty Washington National Guard troops took up positions at roadblocks.

  1. Compare and contrast the Philippines and Californian hotspots, giving an opinion as to which ...

    The tectonics is very active in this area being a destructive boundary, evidence of which can be seen by the deep Manila Ocean Trench that lies on the west of the islands. There is a very high density of highly destructive composite volcanoes namely, Mt Pinotubo and Mt Taal.

  2. b) What are i) the prime causes of and ii) the most effective remedies for ...

    Another way is again through wind and water erosion. This is what caused the great "Dust Bowl" in 1930's America. There was in the areas concerned an extensive amount of farming without crop rotation. This was fine until a drought arrived, turning the soil to dust and blowing it away.

  1. The Japanes Tsunami Disaster.

    Another economic effect is that hundreds of factories were shut across Japan and the country was pushed in to recession. Nissan and Toyota had to halt production at all 20 factories. Toyota, the world?s largest carmaker, evacuated workers from two plants in the worst affected regions.

  2. Volcanic and seismic events are major pieces of evidence towards proving that plate-tectonics theory ...

    This arrangement means that the strength of the magnetic field is not constant but varies, being weakest at the equator and strongest at the poles. Earth?s magnetic field is thought to result from the different rotation speeds of the outer core and mantle.

  1. (a) Suggest why some places are more at risk of experiencing a major volcanic ...

    Also most of the population live on the coast and due to poor land management they have removed most the mangrove which protect the land from tsunamis and this leads to a high potential for hazards. There is also an ever increasing threat from hydro-meteorological hazards and mudflows and landslides are very frequent and often highly devastating.

  2. Disaster Hotspot. The Philippines is considered a disaster hotspot, susceptible to volcanoes, earthquakes, typhoons, ...

    Mount Pinatubo's eruption in 1991 was the biggest the word has seen in 50 years. The volcano showed signs of eruption in April 1991, with steam explosions and minor earthquakes. There were two eruptions and the second, on the 15th June, was a cataclysmic; a dome on the side of

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work