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Earth Materials

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Introduction

EARTH MATERIALS Revision Notes Limestone (Ca C0() or Calcium Carbonate. Found as CHALK, CALCITE OR MARBLE. Uses of Limestone * Neutralising acid in Lakes and soil * Cement = heated Limestone and clay. (Clay contains aluminium) * Glass = Limestone, sand and soda melted Turning Limestone to Slaked Lime Limestone Quicklime Quicklime + water slaked lime The Rock Cycle Rock Types * Igneous - * Intrusive Igneous- cools slowly and forms large crystals e.g. Graphite, Gemstone * Extrusive Igneous- cools quickly and forms small crystals e.g. Basalt Sedimentary Formed from layers of sediment on top of each other. * Sediment layers are laid down in lakes or seas * Get buried further which squeezes out the water * Salt crystallises & cements particles together e.g. ...read more.

Middle

Crust pushed down and melts causes a Volcanoes, earthquakes, oceanic trench and mountains. Sea floor spreading : Mid - Atlantic Ridge Plates move apart magma fills gap to make new crust made from BASALT. Crude Oil * Fossil fuels were formed from dead plants and animals. * Then were covered by sediments in seas or swamps to stop decay. * After millions of years heat and pressure turned it to CRUDE OIL and NATURAL GAS. Used for transport. * To split crude oil you use FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION. * Bigger and longer molecules, less runny hydrocarbon are. Hydrocarbons A hydrocarbon atom has 1 bond. As the size of the hydrocarbon molecule increases: * Boiling point increases * It gets less flammable * It gets more viscous * It gets less volatile (doesn't evaporate easily) Cracking Hydrocarbons (spliting up long chain molecules) Cracking is form of thermal decomposition. ...read more.

Conclusion

The individual units which hold together to form polymer is called the MONOMER. Gases in the atmosphere 78% Nitrogen 21% Oxygen 1% Argon 0.04% Carbon dioxide also varying amounts of water vapour and noble gases BURNING FOSSIL FUELS RELEASES C02, WATER AND SULPHUR DIOXIDE Oceans Oceans hold a lot of carbon and were formed by condensation of steam in early atmosphere. Evolution of Earth's atmosphere 1. Volcanoes gave out stream C02, NH3 and CH4. 2. Molten surface boiled away 3. Thin crust formed, volcanoes erupted releasing C02, steam, ammonia and methane 4. Atmosphere was mostly C02 5. Water vapour condensed and formed oceans and seas Green plants removed C02 and made 02 This killed off animals and new ones developed that could tolerate 02 02 also created ozone layer, which filters out harmful rays Greenhouse effect C02 in atmosphere is rising due to burning fossil fuels Earth warms up C02 adds to greenhouse effect ...read more.

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