Limestone and it history
Limestone The formation of limestone Lime stone is a sedimentary rock made of dead animal shells formed deep down in the ocean; limestone also contains a large amount of calcium carbonate. Carboniferous limestone is a different type of limestone. It was formed around 350,000,000 years ago as a marine deposit in a warm, clear, shallow sea. The rock is well bedded and jointed. The cracks that separate the beds are called bedding planes and those that run down through the rock are called joints. Chalk is also a type of soft porous white limestone. Chalk is found mostly in England, a good example of this is the white cliffs of Dover or the motorway cutting at Blue Bell Hill, in Kent. Erosion and weathering Scree: lime stone tends to erode along the joints due to freeze thaw, this causes the parts to break off and fall to the bottom of the rock face to join the rest of the scree. Terraces: Limestone terraces are exposed bedding planes. Terraces are formed when limestone is eroded along joints and bedding planes on the scarp slope. Blocks of limestone are removed leaving the terracing. Limestone pavements: Where limestone outcrops at the top a hill, limestone pavements will form. The surface of the pavement is an exposed bedding plane and the exposed joints become widened, to form grykes, the blocks of limestone that remain between the grykes are called clints. Acidic
glacial eroded landforms
June 2002 - past paper (1) . Distinguish between the processes of erosion and weathering in an area undergoing glaciation. Erosion is the wearing away and removal of material by a moving force. In an area undergoing glaciation the moving force is the ice. The processes of erosion include plucking and abrasion. On the other hand weathering is the breakdown and decay of rock in situ, with no movement involved. The processes of weathering include freeze-thaw and dilatation. Erosion moves rocks from one place to another, whereas weathering simply breaks rock particles down. So the difference between the processes of erosion and weathering it that the processes of erosion involve movement, whereas the processes of weathering do not. 2. Examine the impact of glacially eroded landforms on human activity Glacially eroded landforms have many different impacts on human activity, some positive and some negative. These impacts range from transport to industry in both rural and urban areas. Transport is an aspect of human activity affected by glacially eroded landforms. U shaped valleys are glacially eroded landforms which have great advantages for transport as they provide natural routeways for through upland areas. So roads and railway lines can be constructed, linking major towns together. For example the A591, which is the main road through the Lake District, follows a glacial
Limestone - What is it?
Limestone What Is It? It is a sedimentary rock composed primarily of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The calcium carbonate was deposited by the remains of marine animals. These organisms secrete shells that settle on ocean floors as a type of gloop. Limestone tends to be organic but it is seldom inorganic. Limestone tends to make up 10% of the accumulated volume of sedimentary rocks. What Is Its Chemical Nature? Limestone is calcium carbonate. It is also moderately soluble in acid, which is a disadvantage when it comes to building. It is made of secreted shells, and limestone can also come into a different form such as chalk, dolomite or marble because of certain pressures in the making of the rock. Why Is It Important As A Building Material? Limestone is very popular in architecture. Limestone is readily available and it is relatively easy to cut in specific shapes or blocks or even for more extensive and elaborate carving in which there is precision design. It is also long-lasting and it is still tough even in exposure. Limestone used for construction is also good in humid and hot environments. What Are The Drawbacks Of Using It In Buildings? Limestone is an extremely heavy material and it is also very expensive to obtain. It is vulnerable to acids, so therefore it is highly susceptible in places where acid rain is a high occurrence. The acids in the rain are capable
Erosional Landforms on the Dorset Coastline
Erosional Landforms on the Dorset Coastline Introduction In this leaflet I am going to present my findings about different types of erosion, and at how they take effect different locations. The relevant locations that I have studied are part of the Dorset coastline. These are: . Lulworth cove, a bay created through millions of years of erosion. 2. Stairhole, a deep cleft that represents stage 1 of the evolution of the coastline. 3. Durdle door, an arch that will soon collapse and erode away. Types of Erosion Erosion is the gradual wearing away of land by water, wind and general weather conditions. The amount of erosion depends on the power of the waves and the rock type. The amount of energy acquired by waves depends upon the wind velocity, the duration of the wind and the distance over which the waves have traveled. This is known as the fetch. There are two types of erosion that can occur at the coast, these are: . Sub-aerial processes (cliff face processes)- These are erosional processes that take place above sea level, affecting the parts of the coastal zone that are not directly influenced by the sea. The processes included in sub-aerial erosion are: * Freeze-thaw * Salt crystallization * Chemical weathering * Biological weathering * Human Activity * Mass movement 2. Marine processes (cliff base processes)- These are erosional processes that occur when
The aim of this piece of coursework is to investigate the impact of tourism, and a Park and Ride scheme, on the natural limestone environment of Cheddar.
The aim of this piece of coursework is to investigate the impact of tourism, and a Park and Ride scheme, on the natural limestone environment of Cheddar. Cheddar is just forty-five minutes away to the south east of St Gregory's Catholic Comprehensive School. The A18 is the road that we first took to get to Cheddar and then we took the B3135 to get into the gorge, as you can see on the map on page . We visited Cheddar to collect primary data and to investigate the type of limestone and its features. This trip was organised so that we could see the limestone for ourselves instead of looking at other sources like books or the Internet. The visit to Cheddar also enabled us to a cross unit task. This was, water, landforms and people, and people work and development. In this coursework I shall include information on Carboniferous Limestone and how it is formed. I shall also give an introduction to Cheddar and the different parts of it such as the Gough's caves and Aladdin's caves and the gorge. Maps will also be included so that you can get an idea of where Cheddar is located and how far away it is from certain places. In task 2, various graphs shall be made which will show the information on all the surveys I took in order to help me in my coursework. Task 3 shall include the different views of the people that would be affected if the proposed Park and Ride, shown in the grid
Karst Topography - underground drainage in areas of massive limestone, and formation at the surface of hollows and pits - solution and abrasions open up joints Limestone features - well-jointed rock which is easily opened by contact with H20 creating wide irregular gullies known as Grykes o the interning blocks are known as clints - Limestone consists of calcium carbonate - Sedimentary rock (chalk, gypsum) - H20 (rain or rivers) converts calcium carbonate into soluble carbonate (massive chemical weathering). - Limestone is permeable - Karst region Croatia - hence the name - Carlsbad cave, New Mexico Karst Landforms - Sink holes (swallow holes, dolines) o Depression in land o Temporary accumulation of H20 and have 'eaten' away through limestone o Disappearing/reappearing stream o Cave (cavern) * Tunnel erosion causes roof to collapse * Calcium carbonate drips from cave roof * Evaporation leads to calcium carbonate deposits * Stalagmites - from floor * Stalactites - from roof * Pillar - mites and tites meeting o Vuala - 2 or more sinkholes formed together o Polje - collapse of cavern ceiling o Hums - small residual hills left behind after significant
Investigating the properties of rocks
Investigating the properties of rocks Test 1-Apperance and texture Marble - It is made up of just one mineral, it feels and looks smooth, it is very hard and the surface looks crystallised and grainy. Slate - It's very smooth to the touch and the eye, it is strong but you can dig parts off if you squeeze your thumb nail in-between the layers, it has 1 mineral and the surface is quite flat. Limestone - It is made up of more than 1 mineral as you can see many different colours and fragments, it contains lots of sediments and fossils. The colour varies from yellow to grey and the rock is very rough. Granite - It is made up of more than 1 mineral, it fells very tough/hard, it is quite shinny, it is not very smooth and the colour varies from white to green. Sandstone - It has more than 1 mineral as there are different particles visible, it's very grainy and it feels hard although you can crumble some off if you rub hard. Basalt - It has more than 1 mineral, it is very hard and it also looks very hardwearing. Mudstone - It has 1 mineral, it is quite smooth, it feels very dusty and muddy, if you rub the rock moderately it will start to crumble. Also it is not very rough or hardwearing. Test 2 - colour Marble -White, grey. Slate - Black - with white lines. Limestone - Yellow, white, brown, grey. Granite - White, grey, black, green. Sandstone - Red with little
Is the Impact of Human Activitie On Mitcham Common Managed Effectivly?
This is an investigation about the impact of humans on Mitcham Common and whether human activities on the common cause problems such as pollution and erosion on the common. This is also an investigation on how humans cause the problems of pollution and erosion and trying to find out ways to manage these problems effectivly in order to secure the safety of Mitcham Common in the future. As Mitcham Common itself is far to large to study as a whole area, I have chosen a certain part of Mitcham Common to help me collect data more effectivly and to allow me to complete my investigation in the given time. Mitcham Common is located in the northern area ? of London and is shown on the map on figure 1.(write some history of common) The reason why I chose this topic to investigate is because I previously studied the Surrey Sandstone hills for my GCSEs geography coursework in1998 and found this type of investigation interesting and useful because I already have some knowledge on this subject and also have an idea on how to conduct this investigation and how to answer the title question of this study on Mitcham Common. In this investigation; five key questions had to be written to indicate what the study is about, they are as followed... . What is the existing situation on Mitcham Common? 2. What are the characterisics of different habitats on Mitcham Common? 3. How does the
The Economic Value of Igneous Activity.
The Economic Value of Igneous Activity. Geothermal Activity. Geothermal energy is produced by steam and hot water reservoirs under but near the surface of the Earth. It can be used for heating or power generation. This energy source can become locally important in those areas where geothermal activity takes place, e.g. in Iceland, Italy, and in the United States, where the largest plant is at The Geysers in Sonoma County, Calif. The corrosive action caused by the high salt content of the water and the deposit of chemicals on the piping system lead to high construction and maintenance costs. Impact On Soil Fertility and Agriculture Clay particles form during the weathering of igneous rocks, such as granite and basalt. The particles are so small that they can be easily carried long distances by water or the wind. A handful of clay picked up anywhere may contain particles formed at different times from different igneous rocks. Tourism Igneous can help the local economy by creating a tourist attraction, for example the Cascade Range extends about 700 miles from northern California through Oregon and Washington into British Columbia. The crest of the range lies from 100 to 150 miles from the Pacific coast. The Cascades begin where the Sierra Nevada ends. Separating the two mountain ranges is a gap, located south of Lassen Peak. To the north the Cascade Range joins the
My aims are to investigate the factors affecting Lava Flows.
Geology Coursework Introduction/Background information There are two types of lava flows, free flowing mobile lava and slow moving viscous lava. Free flowing mobile (basaltic) lava creates a vent and spreads to produce large broad cones called shield volcanoes. The slow moving viscous (rhyolite) lava creates a narrow steep-sided cone due to a different chemical composition to basalt and this makes the lava flows more slowly down the cone side. My Aims My aims are to investigate the factors affecting Lava Flows. There are lots of factors affecting a lava flow, they are: . Slope angle 2. Viscosity of the lava 3. Temperature of the lava 4. Slope height 5. Volume of lava 6. Roughness/smoothness of slope. I have decided to investigate the viscosity of the lava flow. I have chosen this because I can produce a good range of results and this seems like it will produce the most safe, fair and accurate results. This is very important to me. What will the viscosity affect on the lava flow? * Speed of the Lava * Distance traveled from the base of the volcano (slope). I have decided to use the speed as it will be the easiest to perform and it will not take as long to perform. This will allow my self to make more accurate results. So my aim is to investigate how the viscosity of lava changes the speed of the lava flow when purred down a shallow angle. Prediction I