• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

GCSE Georgraphy Coursework: Coastlines

Extracts from this document...


Introduction For my GCSE coursework I will be looking at coasts. In order to answer this question I will be looking at why and how sea defences are being used in Norfolk Whilst investigating this question, there are a number of sub-questions which I will need to answer to help me answer my main question. These are: > Why are the sea defences needed? > Which defences are being used and where? > Are they effective? Do they solve the problem? > What are the advantages and disadvantages of the sea defences? > What impacts do they have on the settlements/economy of the area? History of Norfolk Norfolk is one of the biggest counties in England, (in terms of area as it covers a little over 1.3 million acres.) It is situated on the east coast of Britain, with the North Sea to the east and north. Surrounded by three other counties, Suffolk to the south, Cambridge to the south west, and Lincolnshire to the west. The western part of Norfolk is quite flat and the southern part is known as the Norfolk Broads. While the county has no great heights, the city of Norwich and the north of the county are quite hilly. The North Norfolk coastline is designated as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB) and covers a stretch of approximately 75km. An average of 1m of cliff a year is lost to the sea through erosional processes, resulting in a need to protect the coastline in various ways. We visited four different locations along the North Norfolk coast each with sea defences, these were: > Cley-next-the-sea > Sheringham > West Runton > Overstrand Background on the four locations. Cley next the sea Cley is an area that has been designated a Site of Special Scientific Interest. It is also an area of outstanding natural beauty (AONB) and a specially protected area (S.P.A). ...read more.


We did this at regular intervals up the beach. Sea defences There are six main types of sea defences used in Norfolk, these are; Type: Seawall Description: Concrete wall of different designs; can include flat decks for walking or car parking. Average cost: �3000-4000/m Effects: Deflects wave energy into the next wave movement. Advantages: Capable of withstanding high energy waves. Efficient and effective. Strength and height reassures public fear of flooding. Disadvantages: High cost of building and repair. Reflection can cause turbulence and scouring of the beach. Not very attractive. Makes access to the beach difficult. Used: In Sheringham, Overstrand and West Runton Type: Rip-Rap Description: A jumble barrier of large, irregularly shaped rocks or concrete. Average cost: �3000/m Effects: Absorbs wave energy in gaps and voids between the boulders. Advantages: Very efficient and relatively cheap. Disadvantages: Cost rises if rock is imported. Must be large enough to remain stable (3 tonnes). Difficult access to the beach and dangerous for young children. Used: In Sheringham, West Runton. Type: Gabions Description: strong wire baskets filled with stone and rubble. Often used to protect sand dunes. Average cost: �100/m Effects: Gaps between stones absorb wave energy. Advantages: Trap sand, often become covered with vegetation. Visually less obtrusive. Disadvantages: Not as effective as a sea wall. Shorter life span if exposed. Used: In Overstrand, West Runton Type: Groynes Description: Low walls of timber or concrete built at right angles across the beach. Average cost: �7000 each Effects: Traps sand moving along the beach by longshore drift. Beach built up between the groynes are able to absorb more wave energy. Advantages: cheaper than sea walls. Maintains beach for tourists. No problem of access. Disadvantages: beaches further along the coast maybe starved of a supply of sand and become more vulnerable. Used: In Sheringham, Overstrand and West Runton Type: Revetments Description: low slopping walls of concrete built at the top of the beach. ...read more.


Disadvantages: > They make the coastline look ugly > They make access to beaches difficult > They are quite expensive and require repair quite regularly What impacts do they have on the settlements/economy of the area? The erosion of the sea means that land will fall and as more land falls, the closer settlements get to the edge. This makes house prices fall and home insurance impossible. With the sea defences in place, some settlements have a chance to either move or be kept further away from the edge for longer and sometimes insurance is possible. Obviously the sea defences cost money to be built and maintained so it does have a big impact on the economy of the area as more money is needed to keep the defences in working order. My main question was Why and How are sea defences being used in Norfolk? Sea defences are being use in Norfolk to protect the coastline that's falling into the sea, taking metres of land with it and putting settlements, habitats and wildlife at risk. Also it is effecting the amount of tourism coming to the area of Norfolk. The sea defences being used are actually effective in stopping more coastal erosion from happening. The defences do this by stopping the sea from either reaching the coast or by breaking up the force of the waves before they get to the coast, this way the amount of erosion is less. To get sea defences a site must fulfil at least some of the requirements. In overall conclusion I would say that the sea defences at Norfolk have helped considerable in stopping more of the coastline disappearing and from putting at risks the lives of people and the cliff top settlements. Although the defences can be expensive and do need constant checking and repair to keep them in good conditions to withstand the strong wave destruction. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Coastal Landforms section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Coastal Landforms essays

  1. Walton on the naze coursework

    Day 1 Direction Day 2 Direction Average(Day 1 +2) Pill box 1 36.9 N 40 N 38.45 m Pill box 2 33.6 N 36 N 34.8 m S Beach 1 11.9 N 28 N 19.95 m S beach 2 13.7 N 26 N 19.85 m S beach 3 11.2 N 28 N 19.6 m Bar Graph from tabled results

  2. "An investigation into the methods of coastal management along Brighton's Coastline and the reasons ...

    0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Depth of sediment on the East 100 80 30 80 70 11 90 90 90 70 Depth of sediment on the West 150 120 120 140 138 132 110 40 50 47 Site 4 - Opposite Fishing Museum Distance along the beach (m)

  1. Investigate changes in beach characteristics with increasing distance along the shore, Walton on the ...

    The photos show the reality of problems in Walton and say something in common. Wave zones and beach morphology diagram - Figure 2.2 Walton on the Naze coast's view is same as this diagram's view and everything on the diagram shown are same as in Walton coast.

  2. The Holderness Coast

    The beach is clean but the sea wall isn't very aesthetically pleasing to look at. So it is more likely to attract younger people. The money brought in from tourism can be directed back into the community, making it a sustainable economy.

  1. Coastal Processes

    Removal (erosion) of pebbles at one end and deposition at the other because Longshore Drift deposits materials carried over a period of time along the beach through the swash and backwash movements, so there would be more deposition at one end.

  2. Coastal coursework

    The pressure increases in this air trap as the wave gets closer, thus damaging the cliff face over time. Corrosion: Includes the dissolving of limestone's by carbonic acid, found in sea water, evaporation of salt crystals within the cracks of a rock, thus expanding it and weakening its structure.

  1. An investigation into how beach material varies in shape and size up the beach.

    as they frequently moved up and down the beach in the 'active site' zone thus undergoing attrition as they frequently came in to contact with other pebbles. This helps to prove my hypothesis correct as I expected to find relatively round pebbles at 10-15m up the beach.

  2. Are the sea defences at Minehead effective and have they enhanced tourism?

    the sea bed into where ever it was needed along the beach. Having new sea defences, it would be able to stop flooding except in an extreme event. The new Minehead sea defences has now reduced and controlled flooding DRAMATICALLY!

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work