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# Investigate how the velocity of rivers changes.

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Introduction

Contents 1. Introduction 2. Prediction and Hypothesis for results obtained at Middle section of river Rhymney at B&Q 3. Table of results for middle section of river Rhymney at B&Q. 4. Line chart to show time taken for ping-pong ball to reach end of 40 metre stretch of river at B&Q. 5. Bar Chart of velocity of river at B&Q. 6. Photographic Evidence 7. Analysis of results taken at B&Q 8. Prediction and Hypothesis for results taken at a Meader in Trethomas. 9. Photographic evidence 10. Table of results for Meander 11. Line chart showing time taken for ping-pong ball to reach end of 20m stretch of Meander. 12. Pie chart showing velocities at Meander in Trethomas. 13. Prediction and Hypothesis for secondary results taken at Draethon bridge 14. Table of results taken at Draethon Bridge 15. Line chart to show time taken for ping-pong ball to reach end of 30m stretch of Lower course of River Rhymney at Draethon Bridge. 16. Bar chart to show velocity of lower course of river Rhymney at Draethen Bridge 17. Conclusion 18. Evaluation Introduction I am going to investigate how the velocity of rivers changes. The whole of the River Rhymney is 56 kilometres long. The source of the River Rhymney is located in Bargoed. During it's upper course any spare energy possessed by the river will be used to transport large boulders along its bed. This results in the river cutting rapidly downwards a process known as vertical erosion. Vertical erosion leads to the development of steep sided, narrow valleys. The valley sides are steep due to soil and loose rock being washed downhill following periods of heavy rainfall. The material is then added to the load of the river . The river itself is forced to wind its way around protruding hillsides. These hillsides are known as interlocking spurs and they restrict the view up or down the valley. ...read more.

Middle

Therefore the depth at the centre of the river is greater than the depth at the two sides. The velocity at the centre of the river is greater due to the fact that there is less friction at the centre of the river channel. At the near side and far side of the river the river is working against the friction from the particles due to the manmade reinforcements at the banks and bed of the river, whereas at the centre of the river, the river only has to work against the friction from the bed of the river causing it to have a greater velocity. Secondary Results -A Meander at Trethomas at the Mid-section of the River Rhymney I decided to extend my investigative work by going to the meander of the River Rhymney at Trethomas to obtain extra information about the course of the river Rhymney and to show how the flow of water changes as the river matures. At this stage of the river, the river is eroding laterally as well as vertically. Prediction I predict that the velocity on the outer meander bend will be greater than the velocity at the centre of the river channel. The slowest velocity will be on the inner meander bend where the deposition occurs. Therefore the time taken for the ping -pong ball to reach the end of the stretch of the river will be less on the outer bend of the meander than in the centre. At the outer bend of the meander the time taken for the ping pong ball to reach the end of the stretch of the river will be greatest. Hypothesis When a river reaches a meander most water is directed towards the outside of the bend. This will reduce friction and increase the velocity of the river at this point on the outside of the Meander bend. The river will therefore have more energy to transport material in suspension. This material will erode the outside bank by corrasion. ...read more.

Conclusion

Although Eddy currents due to opposing forces from boulders and rocks occur to a small extent the sheer force of the river has the ability to overcome these frictional forces. The inner part of the Meander bend where the deposition occurred had the smallest velocity as the deposition acted as a frictional force opposing the movement of the water forming Eddy currents therefore the water was flowing in all directions. The effect of the manmade reinforcements at Ystrad in the rivers Middle course was found to greatly decrease the velocity at the banks of the river as it was an extra obstacle in the rivers desired flow pattern opposing the movement of the water forming Eddy currents. Evaluation Overall I feel that the investigation was successful. I felt that the procedure I used in order to obtain my results was simple to follow and allowed me to obtain the expected results. The investigation could have been made more accurate by taking more repeat readings in the sections of the river investigated. We also could have timed the ping-pong balls more efficiently by stopping the stopwatch as soon as the person had caught the ping-pong ball. The person in the river holding the stopwatch in one hand and catching the ball in the other hand so that the stopwatch is stopped at the exact time that the ball is caught could have done this. We could have avoided our anomaly by visiting the straight section of the middle course of the river at B&Q in Ystrad on the same day that the other members of our class visited the straight section of the river in its lower course. This would have ensured that the amount of rainfall was kept constant and would have allowed me to obtain the result I expected to obtain. The river in the lower course should have a greater velocity than the river in the Middle course. We could increase our investigative work by visiting other sections of the river Rhymney to obtain readings and also visit a different river such as the River Taff and compare the two rivers. ...read more.

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