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River Valley Project

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Major River Valley Project * Muti-purpose River Valley Project o A huge dam or a series of dams built on a river and it's tributaries to satisfy many purposes, other than just generating hydel-power, and that too simultaneously. India has come a long way in this field as it has numerous numbers of these projects. * Aims o As the name suggests, there are many purposes of a Muti-purpose River Valley Project. The following are some of them: - * Hydro-electricity production * Avoiding floods and famines * Irrigating fields * Protecting the soil * Supporting afforestation and preserving the natural Ecosystem * Inland navigation ways * Providing fishing grounds * Increasing tourism o Some River Valley Projects of India are as follows * Bhakra Nangal Dam- * River -Satluj * Storage - 7,80,000 hectare-metres * Lakes - guru Gobind Sagar. * Irrigation - 1.4 million hectares * Power -The Nangal Power Plant - 1204 mw annually * Areas -Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Delhi. * Specialty -highest gravity dam in the world at a height of 226 metres. * Damodar Valley- * River -Damodar * Irrigation -.5 million hectares. * Areas - Bihar and west Bengal * Speciality - First in India. ...read more.


exported * Manganese * Reserves - 167 million tones * Areas - Karnataka, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Goa * Uses - used in Ferro-alloys for strength * Mica * Reserves - 122000 tones(90% production in world) * Areas - Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan * Uses - used in electrical industry, Trade * Copper * Reserves - 416.8 million tones * Areas - Singhbhum in Bihar, Bala ghat in Madhya Pradesh and Jhunjhunu and Alwar in Rajasthan * Uses - Domestic purposes, Wires as conductor * Gold * Reserves - 66700 Kg * Areas - Kolar mines (Deepest in the world), Hutti mine both in Karnataka, and some in Andhra Pradesh. Major Power Resources From the start of Mankind, Humans have been extracting resources for power. He started with his own, upgraded to animal power, invented Fire, and then started extracting coal and other energy producing substances to create Fire. However, after the industrial era, there is a sudden need for more energy. Wood fuel, confined only to domestic use and that too in the rural areas was not a good choice in this kind of situation. Coal, which was already in use, became a highly priced commodity. Similarly, the use of hydroelectricity gained currency in the areas where running water and needed technology was readily available. ...read more.


o Nuclear Power- As India is deficient in quality coal and oil, Nuclear power is necessary, India is lucky to be rich in it. Uranium in Singhbhum, Thromiun in Kerela and graphite in eastern hills are the atomic deposits in India, which is used to produce nuclear power from nuclear plants like Tarapur, Rawatbhat, Kalpakkam and Narora. o Power Grid- The major use of the above given sources is to produce electricity. Therefore, its management is an important factor. It is expected for this a national grid is expected to be built for electricity, from the current five regional grids. Nevertheless, this needs huge expenditure on infrastructure and management, which would not be preferable currently. Non-Conventional Sources of Energy Sources of energy those are ancient, like wind and running water, are called non-conventional sources of energy. These are environmental friendly too. Today, the following sources lie in this category: - o Wind Energy- * Electricity -20,000mw * Areas- Tamil Nadu, Maharastra, Gujarat and Orissa o Tidal Energy * Areas- Gulf of Kachchh, and Cambay o Solar Energy * Uses * Cooking * Water heaters * Crop drying * Water desalination * Electricity * Geo-thermal * Biomass * This can further be classified o Energy Plantation o Energy From Urban Waste o Bagasse Based Power Plants o Farm, Animal and Human Wastes o Smokeless Chulhas(Better Utilization) o o o o ...read more.

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