• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12
  13. 13
  14. 14
  15. 15
  16. 16
  17. 17
  18. 18
  19. 19
  20. 20
  21. 21
  22. 22
  23. 23
  24. 24
  25. 25
  26. 26
  27. 27
  28. 28
  29. 29
  30. 30
  31. 31
  32. 32
  33. 33
  34. 34
  35. 35
  36. 36
  37. 37
  38. 38
  39. 39
  40. 40
  41. 41
  42. 42
  43. 43
  44. 44
  45. 45
  46. 46
  47. 47
  48. 48

Study the downstream changes of Loughton Brook.

Extracts from this document...


Produced by: Farris I. Ashraf Table of Contents Header Page number Introduction 3 Methodology 17 Results 24 Analysis 41 Evaluation 44 Bibliography 47 For my Geography coursework I have chosen to study the downstream changes of Loughton Brook. Loughton Brook is situated in Epping Forest. The reason why I have chosen Epping Forest as my site of study is because I have visited it in a school field trip. In addition to that the features of Loughton Brook are all present within a relatively smaller area compared to a large river like the Thames which would have been impractical to study. Also it would have been dangerous to explore rivers of such an immense size especially during that specific time as water levels were high due to the showery season. Epping Forest is situated in the borough of Enfield. It lies near Waltham Abbey and Buckhurst Hill. The forest is a large Crescent of land stretching from Wansted in the south to Epping in the North. Epping Forest can be found on the same Ordnance Survey map as the settlements of Harlow, Bishop's Stortford, Chelmsford and Braintree in Hertfordshire and Essex. The forest is part of the green belt land that forms a ring around the conurbation of Greater London. Epping Forest lies between the River Lea and River Roding and Loughton Brook flows south into the latter. The River Roding flows south alongside the M11 motorway to the River Thames. The M11 motorway provides the link between London in the south, Epping Forest, Saffron Walden and Cambridge to the north. Other transport links include the M25 and furthermore a major London International airport found just north of Epping is Stansted. The survey I had taken with my Geography class concerning the downstream characteristics of Loughton Brook. The survey was carried out on the 22nd March 2002. At the time it was extremely wet due to rain and so the volume of the river was high, with the flow of the water faster than normal. ...read more.


The second was a measurement recording sheet to record load size and shape side on one side and all other river measurements on the other. The load size and shape side also comprises of the Powers Roundness Index. Cork A cork was required to measure the float time so that we can find out the surface velocity of the river site. Gun Clinometers Gun Clinometers were used to measure the gradient. Plastic Bucket A plastic bucket was needed to carry all of the equipment and pebbles that needed measuring (excluding the ranging poles). Ranging Poles Two ranging poles were required. They were white in colour. The ranging poles were used for the gradient, the height of the banks and the water width among other measurements. Ruler A one-meter ruler was required to measure the load size of the pebbles, the height of the banks, the water depths / widths and the wetted perimeters. Timekeeping Device A watch was used as a timekeeping device during my survey because there were not enough stopwatches to go around. Fig. shows all the equipment we used. Measurements Needed To carry out my survey and find out the downstream changes of Loughton Brook, I needed certain measurements from the stream sites that I was studying. The measurements required were; i) Bank to water width ii) Channel Width iii) Cross-sectional Area iv) Float Time v) Gradient vi) Height of the banks vii) Load shape viii) Load size ix) Water Depth x) Water Width xi) Wetted Perimeter Bank to water width The bank to water width is measured by inserting a ranging pole in the water and another ranging pole flat on the bank to form a right angle. This ensures that the poles are straight. The second pole is then measured from the bank till the water by a tape measure / 1m ruler. Two ranging poles and a tape measure / 1m ruler are required. ...read more.


Therefore their hands may have slipped and they may have recorded the wrong information. In reality I had no control of the data given to me by the other group. Therefore they could have made the same mistakes as my group and possible more. All sites (of which I have included in my results) took the survey on the same day. Our calculations were all correct as all of us had the basic competency required. My results showed that as Loughton Brook goes downstream; * The bank to water width increases * The channel width increases * The cross-sectional area increases * The float time decreases * The gradient decreases * The height of the banks increases * The load shape becomes more well-rounded * The load shape becomes more spherical * The load becomes smaller * The water depth decreases * The water width increases * The wetted perimeter increases All of my results agree with my original hypothesise listed in my introduction except for the water depth. The water depth in my results decreases. The water depth stays the same at Sites 2 and 3 (0.24m) and decreases to 0.19m. I expected it to increase because the large volume of water would erode the riverbed and riverbanks through vertical erosion. In my opinion the measurement could have been incorrect due to human error (by someone taking down incorrect measurements etcetera). We could have improved our investigation by ensuring that we came on a different day so that we could have conducted our survey under normal conditions. We could also have improved our results by obtaining another tape measure to measure the pebble accurately. Overall, I consider that the results collected on the survey were higher than satisfactory. The results produced seem to agree with my statement. GCSE Geography Revision Guide Published by: CGP Key Geography for GCSE: Book 1 David Waugh Understanding GCSE Geography Ann Bowen & John Pallister Published by: Heinemann Epping Forest Field Studies Centre www.streetmap.co.uk www.askjeeves.co.uk 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Hydrology & Fluvial Geomorphology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Hydrology & Fluvial Geomorphology essays

  1. Hydrology and Fluvial geomorphology. (Q&A)

    Across the x-axis the size of the particles is shown (measured in mm), ranging from the smallest (clay at about 0.001mm), through silt, sand, gravel, pebbles and boulders (at 100mm and over). The other axis shows the velocity of the river (usually measured in cumecs).

  2. Explain how human activity can modify the hydrological cycle.

    trampling of animals, so would mean that water would travel in overland flow because there would be no pores for the water to fill in the ground and so could not infiltrate, which would mean that it reached the river faster than usual.

  1. 'To what extent does the River Lyn conform to the Bradshaw model of River ...

    Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 Fig. 23 Velocity and a statistical test. I have chosen to do the 'Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient' statistical test. (rs) on the relationship between the distance downstream and the velocity. Null hypothesis = there is no relationship between the distance downstream and the velocity.

  2. Case Study on The Three Gorges Dam in China

    It is clear that after tabulating a conflict matrix on the effects of The Three Gorges Dam on different people there were more agreements than disagreements within groups of people.

  1. Study the river Cray and see whether the river actually follows a natural path ...

    from taken from a common text book I expected the river Cray to have a fast flow in the source. Then the flows speed decrease as I move to the mouth. This was correct and the same as a text book river.

  2. I am going to study the characteristics of rivers and how they change as ...

    It will of course increase naturally because as more tributaries join together the volume of water in the river will increase greatly. I am going to compare stream characteristics as they go downstream. I will use stream ordering as it is a method that gives an indication of the word "downstream".

  1. Loughton Brook River Studies - Epping Forest

    Below is a map showing the site where we done this part of the investigation. Below is the equipment we needed for this investigation: * Gun clinometer * 2 ranging poles * 1 cork * 1 metre ruler * 1 measuring tape (30 metres long)

  2. How does the Efficiency and Cross-Sectional Area of a River Change Down Stream?

    Visual scale for estimating friction Data Representation To continue my investigation I will need to look at the data I have collected and put it into graphs and tables so I can analysis the data efficiently. I have only used the data that I will need to answer my investigation question.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work