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Study the downstream changes of Loughton Brook.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Produced by: Farris I. Ashraf Table of Contents Header Page number Introduction 3 Methodology 17 Results 24 Analysis 41 Evaluation 44 Bibliography 47 For my Geography coursework I have chosen to study the downstream changes of Loughton Brook. Loughton Brook is situated in Epping Forest. The reason why I have chosen Epping Forest as my site of study is because I have visited it in a school field trip. In addition to that the features of Loughton Brook are all present within a relatively smaller area compared to a large river like the Thames which would have been impractical to study. Also it would have been dangerous to explore rivers of such an immense size especially during that specific time as water levels were high due to the showery season. Epping Forest is situated in the borough of Enfield. It lies near Waltham Abbey and Buckhurst Hill. The forest is a large Crescent of land stretching from Wansted in the south to Epping in the North. Epping Forest can be found on the same Ordnance Survey map as the settlements of Harlow, Bishop's Stortford, Chelmsford and Braintree in Hertfordshire and Essex. The forest is part of the green belt land that forms a ring around the conurbation of Greater London. Epping Forest lies between the River Lea and River Roding and Loughton Brook flows south into the latter. The River Roding flows south alongside the M11 motorway to the River Thames. The M11 motorway provides the link between London in the south, Epping Forest, Saffron Walden and Cambridge to the north. Other transport links include the M25 and furthermore a major London International airport found just north of Epping is Stansted. The survey I had taken with my Geography class concerning the downstream characteristics of Loughton Brook. The survey was carried out on the 22nd March 2002. At the time it was extremely wet due to rain and so the volume of the river was high, with the flow of the water faster than normal. ...read more.

Middle

The second was a measurement recording sheet to record load size and shape side on one side and all other river measurements on the other. The load size and shape side also comprises of the Powers Roundness Index. Cork A cork was required to measure the float time so that we can find out the surface velocity of the river site. Gun Clinometers Gun Clinometers were used to measure the gradient. Plastic Bucket A plastic bucket was needed to carry all of the equipment and pebbles that needed measuring (excluding the ranging poles). Ranging Poles Two ranging poles were required. They were white in colour. The ranging poles were used for the gradient, the height of the banks and the water width among other measurements. Ruler A one-meter ruler was required to measure the load size of the pebbles, the height of the banks, the water depths / widths and the wetted perimeters. Timekeeping Device A watch was used as a timekeeping device during my survey because there were not enough stopwatches to go around. Fig. shows all the equipment we used. Measurements Needed To carry out my survey and find out the downstream changes of Loughton Brook, I needed certain measurements from the stream sites that I was studying. The measurements required were; i) Bank to water width ii) Channel Width iii) Cross-sectional Area iv) Float Time v) Gradient vi) Height of the banks vii) Load shape viii) Load size ix) Water Depth x) Water Width xi) Wetted Perimeter Bank to water width The bank to water width is measured by inserting a ranging pole in the water and another ranging pole flat on the bank to form a right angle. This ensures that the poles are straight. The second pole is then measured from the bank till the water by a tape measure / 1m ruler. Two ranging poles and a tape measure / 1m ruler are required. ...read more.

Conclusion

Therefore their hands may have slipped and they may have recorded the wrong information. In reality I had no control of the data given to me by the other group. Therefore they could have made the same mistakes as my group and possible more. All sites (of which I have included in my results) took the survey on the same day. Our calculations were all correct as all of us had the basic competency required. My results showed that as Loughton Brook goes downstream; * The bank to water width increases * The channel width increases * The cross-sectional area increases * The float time decreases * The gradient decreases * The height of the banks increases * The load shape becomes more well-rounded * The load shape becomes more spherical * The load becomes smaller * The water depth decreases * The water width increases * The wetted perimeter increases All of my results agree with my original hypothesise listed in my introduction except for the water depth. The water depth in my results decreases. The water depth stays the same at Sites 2 and 3 (0.24m) and decreases to 0.19m. I expected it to increase because the large volume of water would erode the riverbed and riverbanks through vertical erosion. In my opinion the measurement could have been incorrect due to human error (by someone taking down incorrect measurements etcetera). We could have improved our investigation by ensuring that we came on a different day so that we could have conducted our survey under normal conditions. We could also have improved our results by obtaining another tape measure to measure the pebble accurately. Overall, I consider that the results collected on the survey were higher than satisfactory. The results produced seem to agree with my statement. GCSE Geography Revision Guide Published by: CGP Key Geography for GCSE: Book 1 David Waugh Understanding GCSE Geography Ann Bowen & John Pallister Published by: Heinemann Epping Forest Field Studies Centre www.streetmap.co.uk www.askjeeves.co.uk 1 ...read more.

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