• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The aim of this project was to study the physical development of a river, from its early beginnings at its source in the mountains to the point where it joins its larger branches as it matures and courses its way to the sea.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Geography Coursework INTRODUCTION The aim of this project was to study the physical development of a river, from its early beginnings at its source in the mountains to the point where it joins its larger branches as it matures and courses its way to the sea. I chose this particular site, in the Cairngorm Mountains of Scotland, because of its accessibility (the river Luineag is situated 50 kilometers SE of Inverness and 85 kilometers W of Aberdeen. It is also 10 kilometers off the A9) and its beautiful scenery. The reserve holds many of the tributaries to the river Spey. The Cairngorm Mountains are the largest stretch of continuous upland wilderness in the UK, and the entire range is Britain's largest natural treasure. It stands at an altitude of 305 to 1108meters and is wild and dramatic land straddling the Spey and Dee valleys. The artic-alpine terrain of the high plateau is very similar to the landscape of northern Europe towards the end of the last Ice age. ...read more.

Middle

These bends are called meanders. The erosion processes are demonstrated in the diagram below. As the water flows down a river, its speed is faster on the outside of the meander causing erosion and slower on the inside of the meander resulting in deposition. When the river slows on the inside of the meander it loses energy so that it can no longer carry suspended fragments. This will, over a period of time accentuate the curve of the meander. Sometimes this can even result in an oxbow lake, when the bend of the meander is so extreme that it joins with its adjacent bend to form a new route for the water, excluding the cut off meander. (.) U-SHAPED VALLEYS * A U- shaped valley is also a prominent feature of the middle course of a river. This is a valley whose typical cross section is shaped like a 'u'. A glacier, which is much bigger and more powerful than a river, shaped this and so glaciers deepen and widen the v-shaped valleys formed by rivers in mountain areas. ...read more.

Conclusion

The volume is the largest on the river's course. This part of a river is liable to flood. Flood plains and levees (a.k.a. bluffs): River overflows banks during a flood and spills onto the land. This sudden increase of friction lowers the velocity. When the river retreats it leaves a deposit of material. The coarsest material is deposited first as it is heavier, forming levees (natural extension of River bank to prevent floods - a.k.a bluffs). Alluvium is then deposited. Each time the river floods a new layer is added, eventually forming a floodplain. Braiding - this is where the river channel is broken up into a number of distributaries. The river slows as it reaches where it joins the sea - this results in further deposition. As a river slowly meanders across its flood plain, it often deposits material in the 'middle' of its channel. Sand and shingle banks often form small islands in this way. Deltas - Formed at the mouth of a river. It is a result of the reduction of river velocity as it enters the sea. A delta is formed when deposits of sediment cause a river to divide at the mouth. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Hydrology & Fluvial Geomorphology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Hydrology & Fluvial Geomorphology essays

  1. Hydrology and Fluvial geomorphology. (Q&A)

    The change in gradient could be because of a fall in sea level or an increase in the height of the land, for example, because of land movement due to tectonic uplift. The knick point is the point at which he increased erosion occurs.

  2. Geography Coursework: Epping Forest

    This graph shows that as the velocity and wetted perimeter increase at each site the Hydraulic radius decreases. Velocity and Gradient scatter graph Cross-sectional Area Target Graph This type of graph was chosen because it is easy to see the increase in cross-sectional area over each site.

  1. To what extent are fluvio-glacial deposits and landforms distinctive?

    but the ice next to the back wall remains stuck there, thus creating a crevasse between, which is further widened through the constant movement of the ice downwards. Another type of crevasse that can form is a Randkluft; between the glacier and the back wall itself, caused by melting of

  2. Geography investigation - The River Skirfare located in the Littondale region in the Yorkshire ...

    This means that the same stone is used to collect both the short and long axis at each position in the river. These graphs also show the average size. This is all that is required really but the extra detail gives me an extra insight and may help in explaining any anomalies further on.

  1. The river Gwaun: Investigating how the course of the river changes from the source ...

    does not erode as much as the other sites. At Site 2, there was a line of large rocks along one side of the river next to the farm to stop erosion occurring and therefore destroying the farmland. This shows the first signs of man management in the river and shows that this is not a 'perfect' river.

  2. 'To what extent does the River Lyn conform to the Bradshaw model of River ...

    The calculated value is less than the published value, which allows the null hypothesis to be accepted. The data therefore suggests there is no relationship between the distance downstream and velocity. Evaluating Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient. The graph showing velocity and distance downstream didn't really show any linear relationship.

  1. Geograpgy glendun river

    The river may also erode away the bottom of the interlocking spurs causing a more flat land which looks more like a valley floor. Transporting materials and erosion should both be happening at this section of the river. The river erodes the outside bank of the river and undercuts it to form a river cliff.

  2. Investigating the river Caerfanell

    This is a common mistake that leads to the wrong degree angle being taken and therefore wrong results. This data can be used to evaluate the effect of gradient of velocity. WETTED PERIMETER OF RIVER BED * Tape measure * Metal pin - Mark half way - 5m, on the

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work