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The causes of different additonal needs - Cystic fibrosis, Down's syndrome and Meningitits.

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´╗┐The causes of additional needs Cystic fibrosis Cystic fibrosis is a genetic condition which is caused by the faulty CFTR gene which is on chromosome 7. This faulty gene blocks the normal workings of a protein which then allows too much salt and not enough water into the cells. This then builds up thick, sticky mucus in the tubes and passageways in the body which cause blockages to occur which then damage the lungs, digestive system and other organs. This then results in inflammation and swelling and infections. This faulty gene has to be inherited by both parents to develop cystic fibrosis, but it is still a relatively common genetic condition as it is estimated that 1 person in every 25 carries the faulty CFTR gene. When both parents? carries the gene there is a one in four chance that the child will not inherit either of the faulty genes and will not be a carrier of the condition. ...read more.


There are usually 46 chromosomes within a cell and 23 are inherited from the mother and 23 from the father. The difference to this for people with Down syndrome is that people with Down syndrome have cells which contain 47 chromosomes instead of 46 due to the extra copy of chromosome 21. There are 3 types of Down syndrome which are Trisomy 21, Translocation and Mosaicism. Trisomy 21 is where every cell in the body has an additional copy of the chromosome 21. This is the most common kind of Down syndrome as it affects about 94% of people who have Down syndrome. Translocation is where a piece of chromosome 21 attaches itself to another chromosome in a cell. In rarer cases it is possible for a parent to pass this type of Down syndrome down to their child but as previously mentioned, this is very rare. ...read more.


Because these bacteria are spread through close contact, there is a high risk of spreading these bacteria through being at boarding schools, universities, military bases and in student housing as these are all places in which people come into close proximity with each other. The viruses which cause viral meningitis are enteroviruses which are a group of viruses that usually only result in a mild stomach infection and the herpes simplex virus which causes genital herpes and cold sores. These viruses can be spread through coughing, sneezing and not washing hands after touching a virus contaminated surface. Both the bacteria and viruses spread through the blood stream and usually an infection begins in one part of the body and then it moves through the tissue and into the blood stream which then causes the bacteria and viruses to become active within the body and causes meningitis. ...read more.

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