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Assess the importance of any three advantages held by Parliament during the First Civil War.

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Introduction

Assess the importance of any three advantages held by Parliament during the First Civil War. By 1646, Parliament had secured victory in the First English Civil War despite suffering several setbacks at the beginning of the war. Parliament was able to resolve the problems of neutralism and localism which had hindered both sides at the start of the war. Their victory was also aided by a raft of measures, most notably the Self-Denying Ordinance, which tackled parliamentary problems. Firstly, during 1643 Parliament underwent a series of reforms to improve its war effort. These reforms mainly concentrated on three areas: finance, administration and military. Wars required huge amounts of capital. Parliament was able to finance their war effort more effectively than the Royalists because of the financial reforms devised by John Pym in 1643. The major alterations are the introduction of monthly assessments, sequestration, compulsory loans and the excise tax. These measures ensured effective funds for the parliament's army. ...read more.

Middle

In due course, neutrals would tend to side with Parliament. This implies that in terms of finance Parliament had the upper hand which developed additional bonuses for them. However despite these reforms, Parliament still suffered setbacks, most notably the Battle of Lostwithiel during which the Earl of Essex lost 5,400 men. This had undone the victory at Marston Moor. Another advantage enjoyed by Parliament was the formation a national war strategy. This was done through the Self-Denying Ordinance which forbade Members of Parliament from holding military commands. As a result, the War Party, under the leadership Lord Fairfax and Oliver Cromwell, took command of Parliamentary army; this meant that the army leaders had united aims (the Peace Party had wanted a negotiated settlement with the King which was the antithesis of the aims of the War Party). Therefore, the Earl of Essex and Earl of Manchester, who had been chosen for their noble status rather than military prowess, resigned their posts in the army (Cromwell had accused Essex of incompetence after the defeat at Lostwithiel). ...read more.

Conclusion

It would appear that the Self-Denying Ordinance was the most important advantage enjoyed by Parliament during the First Civil War. The ordinance enabled to the "incompetent" generals such as the Earl of Manchester to lose their military commands. This ensured that the War Party, under the leadership of Lord Fairfax, took control of the parliamentary army; this meant that the army leaders shared the same aims. The Self-Denying Ordinance also gave birth to the New Model Army, which destroyed the King's cavalry at the Battle of Naseby. This suggests that Self-Denying Ordinance was at the centre of Parliament's triumph during the First Civil War. In conclusion, the Self-Denying Ordinance was the most advantage held by Parliament during the First Civil War. This ordinance allowed for the creation of the New Model Army and ensured that the Parliamentary army leaders shared the same aims. Meanwhile, Charles failed to stop the rivalry between his soldiers and therefore was unable to install a national war strategy. ?? ?? ?? ?? Lei Pang ...read more.

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