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AS and A Level: History of the USA, 1840-1968

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 3
  • Peer Reviewed essays 12
  1. Peer reviewed

    Assess the view that the Supreme Court was the most important branch of federal government in assisting African Americans to achieve their civil rights in the period 1865-1992.

    4 star(s)

    began as early as the 1870s, when cases like the Slaughterhouse case effectively undid the work of Congress, thanks to rulings by the Supreme Court. This case ruled that states were permitted to make laws affecting the rights of the citizens - a ruling that would allow southern states to make laws segregating black and white citizens. In fact, it almost went so far as to completely disregard the 14th Amendment, claiming it protected an person's individual rights, but not their civil rights - with one ruling, the Supreme Court effectively removed de jure equality for African Americans, and moved de facto equality further out of their reach.

    • Word count: 4179
  2. Peer reviewed

    To what extent were Malcolm X and the subsequent Black Power Movement the 'Evil Twin' of the Civil Rights Movement in the late twentieth century in the United States of America?

    4 star(s)

    "Although the CRM of 1954-65 effected change in the South, it did nothing for the problems in the North, Midwest and West."14 The squalid living conditions in the Ghettos of cities such as New York that resulted from economic hardship were a key issue for the ensuing movement and their improvement made up a great part of the movement's agenda. A notable statistic is that although African Americans constituted around 10% of the population, almost a third of all those living below the poverty line were African Americans.15 The first reason that may cause the analogy of an 'evil twin' to be associated with Malcolm X is his promotion of separatism16 at a time of primarily integrationist thinking.

    • Word count: 5947
  3. US Popular Culture - Woody Guthrie Biography

    Then in May 1956, he was involuntarily committed to Greystone Park, a mental institution in New Jersey. There he remained for the next five years as he worsened to the point where he could not play the guitar, type, or even hold a pen. In the late 1950s, an admirer named Bob Gleason would pick Woody up on the weekends and take him to East Orange, New Jersey, where the singer would receive visitors. It was there that Bob Dylan came to meet Woody in early 1961.

    • Word count: 3232
  4. Revision notes - the USA 1945 to 1980

    By 1960 nearly all Americans had a TV and a car. 2. Women workers. Women were needed in the factories to help with war production. The number of working mothers also increased rapidly. The percentage of women working rose from 27 to 37% by the end of the war. This had long term effects on the status of women in society. 300,000 women joined the army, 7 million were needed in the workforce. Rosie the riveter was a famous poster to attract women into the factories. After the war most went back to their civilian lives, but many women carried on working, and attitudes to women working had changed forever. 3. Blacks.

    • Word count: 6838
  5. Rosalia Vallejo. Prior to the Bear Flag Revolt, which occurred in 1846, Californio Women lived at peace with the white population. In many cases, these women disregarded the concept of race as an essential definer of their lifestyle, as has been exemplifi

    However, this sentiment regarding the American man was not entirely widespread throughout all of California. Dorotea Valdez exemplifies this particular attitude. Valdez recognized the fact that while some white men were rather respectable, others were not. For example, she developed a high level of respect for a European merchant by the name of David Spence- who she referred to as an honest and intelligent man. Dorotea speaks of this man with immense admiration. Although, she recognizes his misdeeds as a smuggler back in the days, she does not retract from her firm stance, "this does not detract one bit from his good reputation.

    • Word count: 3253
  6. Why were the Liberals defeated in the general election of 1874?

    Part II: Background to the elections of 1874: The Liberals had been returned with a thumping majority in the 1868 election, in which they had fought on almost the same ideology that had dominated the party almost from its birth. If the policies of the establishment towards the Church became the plank from which they attacked the ruling establishment on the domestic front, the policy towards the United States of America was the platform on which they sought to establish themselves among the public.

    • Word count: 3847
  7. How significant was the contribution of Robert J. Oppenheimer to the Manhattan Project?

    calculating what needed to be done, and in what order to make the bomb, this is significant in that he brought all the minds of top physics, to look at what they had to do, and it show because at this summer school Edward Teller put forward the remote possibility that the bomb would generate enough heat to ignite the atmosphere. This concerned Oppenheimer enough, to meet with Arthur Compton in Michigan to discuss the situation. This shows significant as Oppenheimer got a problem pointed out to him, so he went out to found if it could happen and if so how likely would it be for it to happen.

    • Word count: 3090
  8. Discuss the influences on Malcolm X and how they helped form his ideology in the years 1949 to 1965?

    I feel I have answered the question with some difficulty. The question can be broken into two parts firstly, "the influences on Malcolm X" and secondly, "how they helped form his ideology". The Latter was the more difficult part as there wasn't a conclusive answer. All sources indicated varying views and sometimes led to speculation since Malcolm X's life ended prematurely without having come to a definite ideology. Maybe that was Malcolm X's vision or mission to help deliver the African Americans using all means at his disposal. Overall the question has been answered as best possible with the maximum use of sources and a huge variety of sources from books to videos.

    • Word count: 4726
  9. Comparison of Presidents Harry Truman, Dwight Eisenhower and Lyndon Johnson

    As part of the Fair Deal, Truman made an executive order in 1946 that had a major effect on civil rights. By this executive order, 9808, he created the Committee of Civil Rights. This committee was responsible for investigating the current status of civil rights in the U.S. and finding ways to improve the civil rights of the United States citizens, particularly African Americans. A year after the committee was formed, it released a report called To Secure These Rights.

    • Word count: 3608
  10. America's Reconstruction as Revolution

    When Union troops took over the land, most slaves no longer toiled for their owners and many fled to Union lines. The slaves could see what was on the horizon. "War, it has been said, is the midwife of revolution, and well before 1863 the disintegration of slavery had begun." 1 The Proclamation signaled a turning point in not only the war, but the direction of the entire nation. For the first time, the country specifically committed itself to the issues of the black population.

    • Word count: 3635
  11. Linguistic Study - Linguistic Analysis of Martin Luther King's 'I Have a Dream', and Abraham Lincoln's 'Gettysberg Address'

    I will keep an open mind while studying these speeches, and won't be biased about either of the speakers. I am particularly interested in Martin Luther King's speech as I respect what he achieved for equal rights. It is also a subject I feel strongly about, and would like to learn more about Luther King. During the 1950's in America, equal rights for all people, envisioned by the Declaration of Independence, was not progressing. Negroes, Hispanics and Orientals, were discriminated against in many ways. The 1950's were a tempestuous time in America, when racial barriers were began to fall due to Supreme Court decisions.

    • Word count: 5332
  12. a) "How far do these sources support the view expressed in source one that, in the years 1067-1075, William had favoured conciliation in his attempts to establish peace in England?"

    However, though acting on the King's behalf, of appeasement, Lanfranc would have used his own ideas and thoughts on the case. Finally, as Hereford was the son of William fitz Osbern, he could have been treated differently for his links with William I; they were friends from their childhood2. Source two and five disagree with the statement in source one. Source two is from the "Anglo-Saxon Chronicle"3; as a consequence of the invasion, William is described to have devastated Yorkshire ("Harrying of the North")

    • Word count: 3272
  13. The Interesting Narrative of Olaudah Equiano - overview

    Behn places emphasis on Oroonoko's physical appearance to highlight his nobility: "He was pretty tall, but of a shape the most exact that can be fancied. The most famous statuary could not form the figure of a man more admirably turned head to foot." (2175). This description of him creates the sense that he is a special and powerful person despite his position as a slave to justify and legitimize him as a worthy narrative subject. Placing him above a common slave may also be an important part in engaging the sympathies of the reader because they are able to imagine Oroonoko admirable instead of lowly.

    • Word count: 3235
  14. Weapons and Armour - Most civil war soldiers carried a rifled musket, which had quickly replaced the smoothbore muskets.

    However this was not always true. A famous New York group of volunteers wore baggy red pants and short red jackets. The Iron Brigade of Michigan wore wide-brimmed black hats, with a feather curled up at the side. The United States Sharpshooters wore dark green uniforms, leather leggings, and feathers in their hats. Uniform was scarce for Southern soldiers. Before the war, the South sent almost all its cotton to Europe or the Northern states to be made into cloth. There were no factories in the south to make uniforms.

    • Word count: 3211
  15. Theodore Roosevelt

    He recognized the importance of reporters and was very successful in utilizing newspapers to arouse the public and to get the people to fight for his views. He stated that "the leading newspaper correspondents at Washington were . . . the most useful of all agents in the fight for efficient and decent government."4 When Roosevelt couldn't get the members of Congress to agree with him, he appealed over their heads to the people. In fact, he was the president that began the practice of holding press conferences to keep the public up to date on domestic and world affairs and to convince the people to concur with his views.

    • Word count: 3077
  16. Civil Rights Revision Cards 1945-68

    Truman decreased discrimination in federal employment and contracts (Executive Order 9980) 3. 1948: Executive Order 9981 - ends discrimination in armed forces 4. Appointment of blacks to prestigious posts (eg ? 1949: William Haist = first black federal judge, Ralph Bunche = Ambassador to UN in 1950) On the other hand ? 1. Truman tried to open more public housing to blacks. BUT ? urban renewal programme often left blacks home less ? fewer houses available 2. Federal defence contracts not supposed to be given to companies that discriminated.

    • Word count: 7740
  17. Religion in the West -The United Brethren Missionary Train to Oregon

    Connor Ward 8th grade, Jackson Middle School Acknowledgments - Many thanks to historian Mary Gallagher from the Benton County Historical Society for her time and outstanding knowledge of the area. ?Yoke those oxen! There are over 100 of them! It?s a good day, we should be able to cover at least 20 miles today!? shouted the Reverend. After the train had gone about three miles, it came to a fork in the road, a new road that skirted the lake on its far side, and the original road.

    • Word count: 3077

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • To what extent was the attack on Pearl Harbor a Surprise to President Roosevelt?

    "E. Conclusion Based on the evidence presented in my analysis the attack on Pearl Harbor was not a surprise to President Roosevelt. Many officials including the President knew about that the attack on Pearl Harbor would happen before December 7th. This is because of direct and indirect warning signs that were presented to United States officials only to be disregarded and ignored. Indirect warnings came from Japan through the press and military changes, while direct warnings came from leaders such as Churchill and United States navy officials. The warnings were disregarded. The fourteen part message was fully decoded two days after interception because it was done at a leisurely pace. It was done at a leisurely pace because no officials were on alert and searching for when and if an attack would take place against the United States. All because all the warning signs were overlooked by major officials an attack on Pearl Harbor took place but if the warnings were properly assessed then Pearl Harbor may have had a chance to defend itself from Japanese advances. F."

  • To what extent was WW2 the most significant turning point for civil rights

    "In conclusion we can see that WW2 was certainly not the most successful period for the civil rights movement as that mantle can probably be taken up by the events of the 1960's but it did mark a momentous turning point in the social acceptance of African Americans and even though by matter of convenience forced integration of blacks into the everyday life of America. It turned the movement in the right direction it needed to go in order for the events of the 1960's to take place. However, my personal feeling is actually that the most significant turning point overall was the Reconstruction period of 1965 to 1877. This period was by no means a massive success in reality as we have learnt that little actually changed, but if it was not for slaves being granted their freedom after the end of the civil war then none of the following advancements could even have been possible. It was this somewhat rather unassuming nudge than ignited the eventual movement that would bring about the practical changes of racial equality in the USA."

  • Evaluate The Presidency Of Theodore Roosevelt.

    "In conclusion, although Roosevelt did not deal with some of the issues which arose during his presidency, and did make a major political mistake, I think that his presidency can still be viewed as effective and successful. The great achievements Roosevelt made in the areas he did deal effectively deal with, I think, far out-weigh the negative aspects of his presidency. 2,192 words"

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