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Paper 1 History Notes

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Introduction

Paper 1 notes The USSR under Stalin, 1924 to 1941 => Struggle for leadership (1924-1928/29) * Stalin's strengths - "comrade card index" - Held influential posts: Commissar for Nationalities; Orgburo; Politburo; from 1922 General Secretary - General Sec: power base, promoting + demoting - Party membership 801,000 (1925) => 1.5mil (1929) - Decision making centralized * Rivals weaknesses - No one rivaled influence - Trotsky, Bukharin, Kamanev, Zinoviev all underestimated Stalin: 'great blur' - Kamanev + Zinoviev: hesitation in October revolution - Trotsky: Menshevik, arrogance, Jew, lack of power (no desire/effort) * Round 1 - Trotsky - Lenin dies 1924 - Stalin at funeral (chief mourner)/ Trotsky not - 'Lenin legacy' 'heir' - Cult hero worship - 1924 - allies w Kamanev & Zinoviev to prevent Trotsky becoming leader - Combined support overcomes Trotsky & Political Testament - 1925 - Trotsky forced to resign as Commissar for War * Round 2 - Left (1925-27) - 1926 Trotsky, Zinoviev, Kamanev - 'United Opposition' - Resistance to Stalin from left of Party - Not so united - previous opposition - 'Permanent Revolution' versus Stalin's 'Socialism in One Country' - Attacked NEP - supported rapid industrialization & collectivization (pushing economy forward) - 1926 - 'left' defeated in Central Committee => met in secret & then accused of forming factions - expelled from Politburo - Stalin packs hierarchy with supporters * Round 3 - Right(1928-29) ...read more.

Middle

* However... - Plans: not completed; affected by purges; disrupted by war - Targets quantitative not qualitative: produce poor - International prestige => Moscow Metro, Belomor Canal: little value - Fear of punishment affects workload and quality - Living standards fell; wages fell; overcrowding in towns; little consumer goods - caught up with west? => Nature of Soviet State and Cult of Personality Background * The State - closing of Constituent Assembly Jan 1918 = initiation of single party rule - outlawed other parties; expelled members; Secret Police (Cheka) => OGPU => NKVD. - Monopolization of State institutions by Communist Party: Sovnarkom (Lenin and ministers) Oct 1917. * The Party - 1919 Politburo: initially only Stalin, Lenin, Trotsky, Kamanev, Zinoviev (more power then Sovnarkom) - Stalin: unequalled power in party - Politburo > Central Committee > Party Congress - 1921 Split in Party: Workers Opposition (for trade unions) and Democratic Centralists (democracy) - Lenin 10th Party Congress banned factionalism (survive Kronstadt Rebellion, etc). Ban never lifted (silence rivals) * 1924 Constitution - Set up USSR: federation of 4 Republics, and 16 autonomous republics (*less governing power than the republics) - Union Government in Moscow controlled important matters: e.g. economic and foreign policy * Soviet State under Stalin - Power in Party => Lenin: Sovnarkom, Stalin: Politburo (increased Party control over State institutions + personal power) ...read more.

Conclusion

to secure USSR with allies in West * How did Stalin try to make the USSR more secure - 1934: joined League of Nations - 1935: signed treaties w France & Czechoslovakia - promising support - Comintern - 1936-39: gave military aid to Republicans in Spain (but Franco won Civil War) - After 1938 Munich Conference (Stalin not invited) Sudetenland handed over to Germany (part of Czechoslovakia) Stalin concluded Non-Aggression Pact w Germany => Nazi Soviet Pact * Why? - Time for rearmament program - Hopeful: Germany in long & exhausting war w France & Britain - Extend USSR territory & influence over Eastern Europe * What? - Secretly divide Poland - Germany gave USSR help to conquer Bessarabia, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia & Finland * Results - September 1939: Germany invaded Poland, USSR invades eastern Poland - Poland surrendered end of October. Britain & France declare war on Germany September - Winter 1939-40: Estonia, Latvia & Lithuania occupied by Red Army: USSR demanded land in Finland => war. USSR expelled from League of Nations * End - June 1941: Germany invades USSR => Operation Barbarossa - had tried desperately to maintain peace: arms to Germany, ignored intelligence reports of immanent invasion * USSR & Far East 1938-41 - 1938/39: armed clashes between Japan & USSR in Outer Mongolia - April 1941: Japanese sign Non-Aggression Pact w Russia - Stalin avoids war on two fronts ...read more.

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