• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

To what extent was Austria responsible for the failure of Italian revolutionaries in the years 1820-37? (30 marks)

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

´╗┐Essay q.Italy 1815-184729/09/13 To what extent was Austria responsible for the failure of Italian revolutionaries in the years 1820-37? (30 marks) The revolutions of 1820-1 and 1831-2 were generally dismissed as failures, strengthening the hold of reactionary governments and leaders. This is due to a number of factors, some more significant that others however each one individually important in preventing progress of the temporary successes of each revolution. Austria itself was not the most important factor for the failure of Italian revolutions in the years 1820-1 and 31-2. Austria?s strength which enabled them to suppress revolutions easily would not have been so effective without the combination of other factors involved such as lack of unity and organisation within the revolutions, lack of popular support for the motive of the revolutionaries, and lack of external support from other, stronger nations. Austria?s role however was a factor in determining the outcome of the 1820-1 and 31-2 revolutions in Italy. It can be said that despite the temporary successes of most of the revolutions, Austria?s strength was a key factor in preventing maintenance of these brief revolutionary establishments. ...read more.

Middle

In Naples, the middle-class revolutionists hoped for the return of a constitution similar to that of Spain?s 1812 constitution, guaranteeing political liberties. Whilst Neapolitans wanted a constitution, Sicily peasants wanted independence from Naples. This contrasting motive of revolutionaries led to the revolutionaries working against one another. The new constitution in Naples refused to help the anti-Neapolitan peasant revolts in setting up a constitution in Sicily, weakening both chances of a stronger revolt due to a smaller support network. Similarly, lack of unity between revolutionists is evident by the way the revolutionary government in Bologna refused to send help to Modena?s unorganised riot before Duke Francis returned with the Austrian army. This lack of unity in aims, communication and co-operation of the revolutionary localised and separate groups made the revolutions much easier to crush. The separation and secrecy of the secret societies which made up the revolution groups were unorganised and scattered in localised aims. This is evident from the easily overthrown revolt in Modena, due to lack of organisation in a short space of time. Lack of popular support was another important factor in determining the inevitable failure of the revolutions. ...read more.

Conclusion

Alongside this, the revolutions were mostly limited to middle-class men. If the ideals and motives had been more open to the majority of the population, rather than being so secretive and limited to the select few intellectuals, then more people would be fighting for the same cause, creating a larger revolution. This in itself would have been a barrier for Austria?s strength. Finally, if there was more support from other nations for the revolutions in Italy, then Austria may have not been able to physically stop the revolutions so easily, due to number and military resources. So although Austria was strong and continually repressed revolutions one after the other with support from Russia and Prussia, without these other factors they would not have been able to prevent revolution in Italy so easily. These combined factors; lack of unity, popular support and external support, were together, a way of weakening the revolutions and enabling Austria to easily sustain them. Alone, they would all be less significant than the combination of all three against Austria. The reality of Austria?s strength is undermined by these factors as they disable the historian from being able to fairly asses the strength of Austria. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 essays

  1. Assess the view that the failures of the Congress of Vienna outweighed the successes.

    In a little over 15 years, many elements of the Settlement were undermined: the newly created Kingdom of Holland was broken up, the Bourbon restoration in France had ended and Tsar Nicholas I had revoked the constitution granted to Poland.

  2. Compare and access the main reasons for the failure of the Italian revolutions due ...

    This led to government offices being burnt down and the revolutionaries ultimately taking over the city and realising all the prisoners. The Austrian response was furious; the chancellor was outraged at the revolts taking place. He thought they were unsettling the balance of power in Austria and in turn this might influence other nationalists to take action.

  1. The Battle of the Denmark Strait and the Failure of Operation Rheinbung

    The Royal Navy became aware of their existance at 8 o clock in the evening of Wednesday 21st May. By the next day, Bismarck and Eugen's escorts had peeled off and the two ships were free to move at their top speeds, as they far outran the destroyers.

  2. Why were there two revolutions in Russiain 1917?

    The Allies, of course, were are sympathetic to the Provisional Government, largely because of its stand on continuation of the war. The U.S.A. was the first government to recognize the Provisional Government on March 22, 1917. The English, French and Italians soon followed suit.

  1. Hitler and the Secret Societies.

    But the French authors have also proposed the thesis that Hitler the "medium" emancipated himself at a certain point from the "unknown superiors," almost like a Golem, and that the movement then pursued its fatal direction. But in that case one must admit that these "unknown superiors" can have had

  2. How significant was foreign influence in shaping Italian political and social development in the ...

    determined to restore the Pope."[6] This revealed a changed political mind-set for many middle class Italians: that secular republicanism was impossible as the papacy was supported by two European giants. A foreign power was clearly needed, as shown from the brutal crushing of the 1848 revolutions, before any form of Mazzinian unity or even separatist republics could develop.

  1. To what extent was Austrian Military strength the most important reason for the failure ...

    Lacking allies, Charles Albert was no match for the Austrian army. He was defeated at the Battle of Custoza (July 24, 1848), signed a truce, and withdrew his forces from Lombardy. There were further defeats to follow. In 1848, Prince Felix zu Schwarzenberg was appointed Prime Minister of Austria.

  2. To what extent was Austria responsible for the failures of the Italian revolutions in ...

    Therefore, the events that followed in the years 1820 ? 1849 were all underpinned by the resentment of this from Metternich and the importance he placed on controlling Italy. Metternich was the Austrian chancellor and saw the danger of Italian nationalism and the potentially threatening ideas that could spread if he allowed it.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work