Why Did The Revolutions Of 1820-1831 In The Italian States Fail?

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Why Did The Revolutions Of 1820-1831 Fail? The year 1815 saw the restoration of the monarchy in the Italian states. This was met with great dissatisfaction by a high amount of middle class citizens, who saw this reactionary revert to pre-Napoleonic times as restricting and unfavourable, as during the French Rule, all were equal in the eye of the law, and had more freedom through a fairer system.     This led to the foundation of revolutionary organizations, most notably the Adelfi, Carbonari and the Italian Federation. Their desires were to eliminate Austrian influence and unify the Italian states as one. There were then revolutions in Naples (1820), Sicily (1820), Piedmont (1821) and Modena, Parma & Papal States (1831). However, these failed due to a number of reasons, and these will be looked at in the course of this essay.     One significant reason for these failures was the constant intervention of Austria and Klemens von Metternich. Metternich dominated European foreign policy and opposed any kind of revolution. For example, he was shocked that the Neapolitan revolution in 1821 was proving to be a success, and considered it to be disturbing. Therefore, he took measures to suppress these events at every opportunity.     Ferdinand I attended a meeting at Laibach and declared that he could not contain the revolutionaries. He turned to Austria for help in restoring his Absolute Rule in Naples, and they agreed to intervene. The Austrian army arrived in Naples, broke through the
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resistance and served consequences to those who had upset the control and army of the state. This included prison sentences, torture and numerous executions. After the interference of Austria, Naples returned to order and the revolution had failed. This was again the case in Sicily, as control returned there also. This constant conciliation was arguably one of the more important factors in the breakdown of these insurrections.     While Austria had caused problems regarding the progression of revolutionists; there were other enigmas that had to be faced. One such reason would be the lack of strength, resources and extremists to help ...

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