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From the nineteenth century to the present day, youth and youth justice policies have been rooted in the adult world, have reflected adult concerns with the threat of youth and have been constructed to allay adult fears." (Brown, 1998). Discuss.

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Introduction

"Through the twists and turns of youth justice policy we see a recurring and ongoing preoccupation with the perceived threat to social stability posed by unregulated, undisciplined and disorderly youth outside adult control. [...] From the nineteenth century to the present day, youth and youth justice policies have been rooted in the adult world, have reflected adult concerns with the threat of youth and have been constructed to allay adult fears." (Brown, 1998). Discuss. "By 1851 'juvenile delinquency' was established among journal-reading, servant-employing Britons as a major problem in the condition of England. It was, wrote J.S. More, a professor of civil law, 'next to slavery...perhaps the greatest strain on our country. Matthew Davenport Hill, recorder of Birmingham, described it as 'the head-spring of that ever-flowing river of crime, which spreads its corrupt and corrupting waters through the land'. Dickens pictured it as a 'bog', and prophesied that its 'seed of evil' would yield a 'field of ruin...that shall be gathered in, and garnered up, and sown again...until regions are overspread with wickedness enough to raise the waters of another deluge'" (Magarey 2002 p115) The question that remains is, to what extent are youth justice policies the government's reaction to adult fears of the growing rates of juvenile crime, this can be extended to the investigations ...read more.

Middle

The Metropolitan Police force set up by Peel in 1829 was seen as a major step forward in the fight against juvenile crime in England. However, evidence has suggested that it may have simply escalated fears that youth crime was spiralling out of control. It appears that the Metropolitan police in their early days were rather over enthusiastic in enforcing the law and dealing with minor offences. The general instructions issued to the police stressed that their principal objective was the prevention of crime. As policemen making arrests had to conduct their own cases in court, and were liable for costs and counter-prosecution if they did not secure a conviction, they may have concentrated their efforts to prevent crime on juveniles, who were less likely than adults to present an able defence or to instigate counter charges. This could explain the 10% rise of juvenile convictions between 1840 and 1843 (Magarey 2002 p115-120) and the idea that juvenile crime was the root of all adult crime (May 2002 p105); it also supports the argument that youth justice acts were the result of adult fears based on unreliable statistics. This trend of adult and class fears influence can also be seen in 20th Century and present day legislation. ...read more.

Conclusion

Sources Used: Clarke, J (2002) The Three Rs - Repression, Rescue and Rehabilitation Ideologies of Control for Working Class Youth in Muncie, J., Huges, G. & McLaughlin, E.(eds) (2002) Youth Justice Critical Readings, London, Sage, pp123-137. Hendrick, H. (2002) 'Constructions and Reconstructions of British Childhood: an Interpretative Survey, 1800 to the Present', in Muncie, J., Huges, G. & McLaughlin, E.(eds) (2002) Youth Justice Critical Readings, London, Sage, pp22-44 Margary, M (2002) The Invention of Juvenile Deliquency in Early Nineteenth-Century England in Muncie, J., Huges, G. & McLaughlin, E.(eds) (2002) Youth Justice Critical Readings, London, Sage, pp115-122. May, M (2002) Innocence and Experience: The Evolution of the Concept of Juvenile Delinquency in the Mid-nineteenth Century, in Muncie, J., Huges, G. & McLaughlin, E.(eds) (2002) Youth Justice Critical Readings, London, Sage, pp98-114 Newburn, T. (2002) Young People, Crime, and Youth Justice. In The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (Third Edition), Oxford, pp531-578 Rose, N. (1990) Governing the Soul: The Shaping of the Private Self, London, Routledge. Rush, P. (2002) The Government of a Generation: The Subject of Juvenile Deliquency in Muncie, J., Huges, G. & McLaughlin, E.(eds) (2002) Youth Justice Critical Readings, London, Sage, pp138-158. Shore, H (2002) Reforming the Juvenile: Gender, Justice and the Child Criminal in Nineteenth-Century England, in Muncie, J., Huges, G. & McLaughlin, E.(eds) (2002) Youth Justice Critical Readings, London, Sage, pp159-172. ?? ?? ?? ?? Library Card: 04023308 - 1 - ...read more.

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