• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

From the nineteenth century to the present day, youth and youth justice policies have been rooted in the adult world, have reflected adult concerns with the threat of youth and have been constructed to allay adult fears." (Brown, 1998). Discuss.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

"Through the twists and turns of youth justice policy we see a recurring and ongoing preoccupation with the perceived threat to social stability posed by unregulated, undisciplined and disorderly youth outside adult control. [...] From the nineteenth century to the present day, youth and youth justice policies have been rooted in the adult world, have reflected adult concerns with the threat of youth and have been constructed to allay adult fears." (Brown, 1998). Discuss. "By 1851 'juvenile delinquency' was established among journal-reading, servant-employing Britons as a major problem in the condition of England. It was, wrote J.S. More, a professor of civil law, 'next to slavery...perhaps the greatest strain on our country. Matthew Davenport Hill, recorder of Birmingham, described it as 'the head-spring of that ever-flowing river of crime, which spreads its corrupt and corrupting waters through the land'. Dickens pictured it as a 'bog', and prophesied that its 'seed of evil' would yield a 'field of ruin...that shall be gathered in, and garnered up, and sown again...until regions are overspread with wickedness enough to raise the waters of another deluge'" (Magarey 2002 p115) The question that remains is, to what extent are youth justice policies the government's reaction to adult fears of the growing rates of juvenile crime, this can be extended to the investigations ...read more.

Middle

The Metropolitan Police force set up by Peel in 1829 was seen as a major step forward in the fight against juvenile crime in England. However, evidence has suggested that it may have simply escalated fears that youth crime was spiralling out of control. It appears that the Metropolitan police in their early days were rather over enthusiastic in enforcing the law and dealing with minor offences. The general instructions issued to the police stressed that their principal objective was the prevention of crime. As policemen making arrests had to conduct their own cases in court, and were liable for costs and counter-prosecution if they did not secure a conviction, they may have concentrated their efforts to prevent crime on juveniles, who were less likely than adults to present an able defence or to instigate counter charges. This could explain the 10% rise of juvenile convictions between 1840 and 1843 (Magarey 2002 p115-120) and the idea that juvenile crime was the root of all adult crime (May 2002 p105); it also supports the argument that youth justice acts were the result of adult fears based on unreliable statistics. This trend of adult and class fears influence can also be seen in 20th Century and present day legislation. ...read more.

Conclusion

Sources Used: Clarke, J (2002) The Three Rs - Repression, Rescue and Rehabilitation Ideologies of Control for Working Class Youth in Muncie, J., Huges, G. & McLaughlin, E.(eds) (2002) Youth Justice Critical Readings, London, Sage, pp123-137. Hendrick, H. (2002) 'Constructions and Reconstructions of British Childhood: an Interpretative Survey, 1800 to the Present', in Muncie, J., Huges, G. & McLaughlin, E.(eds) (2002) Youth Justice Critical Readings, London, Sage, pp22-44 Margary, M (2002) The Invention of Juvenile Deliquency in Early Nineteenth-Century England in Muncie, J., Huges, G. & McLaughlin, E.(eds) (2002) Youth Justice Critical Readings, London, Sage, pp115-122. May, M (2002) Innocence and Experience: The Evolution of the Concept of Juvenile Delinquency in the Mid-nineteenth Century, in Muncie, J., Huges, G. & McLaughlin, E.(eds) (2002) Youth Justice Critical Readings, London, Sage, pp98-114 Newburn, T. (2002) Young People, Crime, and Youth Justice. In The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (Third Edition), Oxford, pp531-578 Rose, N. (1990) Governing the Soul: The Shaping of the Private Self, London, Routledge. Rush, P. (2002) The Government of a Generation: The Subject of Juvenile Deliquency in Muncie, J., Huges, G. & McLaughlin, E.(eds) (2002) Youth Justice Critical Readings, London, Sage, pp138-158. Shore, H (2002) Reforming the Juvenile: Gender, Justice and the Child Criminal in Nineteenth-Century England, in Muncie, J., Huges, G. & McLaughlin, E.(eds) (2002) Youth Justice Critical Readings, London, Sage, pp159-172. ?? ?? ?? ?? Library Card: 04023308 - 1 - ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Sources of Law section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Sources of Law essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Critically discuss different possible meanings of justice and explore the relationship between law and ...

    3 star(s)

    However, St. Thomas Aquinas believed that this higher law was derived from God. Therefore any law that is against the human good or even against Gods will is not true law and should not be adhered to. But then this means that natural law theorist would not abide by the

  2. To what extent do you think these aims have been (or will be) facilitated ...

    do so subject to any existing equitable interest in the land of which he knows (actual notice), ought to know (constructive notice) or of which an agent acting for him in that transaction knows or ought to know (imputed notice).

  1. Juvenile Justice

    The juvenile justice system mainly judge cases in which a minor is involved in the criminal process. The process can be less disciplinary than the general criminal process, because a minor are helped more by various groups, rather than being sentenced straight to prison.

  2. Critically evaluate the partial defence of Provocation.

    which is a strong number. 6/9 decided that Smith had been wrongly decided and so followed Luc Thiet Thuan. The Privy Council cannot overrule the House of Lords, but since six Law Lords agreed makes this a persuasive precedent and it would seem probable that Crown Courts will now follow Luc Thiet Thuan.

  1. Law and Justice

    Utilitarianism argues that society should work towards the satisfaction of the greater number, even if this means sacrificing the needs of the individual, so long as the consequence gives happiness to the majority. Utilitarianism was advocated by writers such as Mill and Bentham.

  2. 'The Human Rights Act 1998 has a significant impact on

    1998 is to allow everyone within the UK to seek redress in British Courts for breaches of their Convention rights committed by public authorities. This however, does not include either the House of Parliament or a person exercising functions in connection with proceedings in Parliament.

  1. Our country's goodPlotAct one scene one-In scene one we see that there are some ...

    a good man and how he knows what he is doing is wrong and that if he cant do the right thing how can he expect the convicts to. Then ketch enters and talks about his hate for being a hangman and how he just wants to be liked and

  2. Assess theeffectiveness of the Law in Achieving Justice for Indigenous People.

    Upon settling, the Europeans failed to recognise the Indigenous system of law, as well as the deep attachment that the Aboriginal people had to the land and the traditional methods of maintaining it which had been perfected over thousands of years - such as 'fire stick' farming.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work