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Discuss the role of feedback in the learning of skills.

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Introduction

Discuss the role of feedback in the learning of skills 'Feedback is sensory information that results from movement' (Davis et al-2000) Guidance and feedback are extremely helpful when learning new skills. Guidance is information about what you are about to do. It should let the performer know which is the best way to succeed. Feedback is comments about what you have just done. Feedback is most effective given straight after the performance, when what you have done is fresh in your mind. It should be accurate, clear, and easy to understand, in order to aid the learning of skills. Feedback comes in several forms. These are used in conjunction with the learner's ability, and the type of activity being learnt. * Intrinsic * Extrinsic * Positive * Negative * Terminal * Concurrent * Knowledge of performance (KP) * Knowledge of results (KR) Feed back has four main functions; To inform the performer about how well they have done, positive or negative reinforcement, motivation, and punishment. (Galligan et al. 2000) Intrinsic feedback comes from the performer. It is usually focused on the outcomes, and how well the performer has done. ...read more.

Middle

The aim is to improve the skill technique, whilst a performer is in action. Knowledge of performance is information about technique and performance. An example of this is a team talk at the end of a hockey match. The coach will talk to the team about the game, and what was done well and what needs to be improved. This can be by positive or negative feedback. It can also be gained intrinsically by kinaesthetic feedback. Knowledge of results is generally extrinsic. It is information about the outcome at the end of a performance. For example, a trampolinist will know how well they have performed in a competition due to the 'form' mark and tariff awarded. A 100M sprinter will know how well they'd performed by their time. Feedback should include the performance outcome, what they did well and not so well. A coach could explain how to improve their technique and correct errors. The coach should explain why these changes should be made. It is better for a coach to give positive feedback first, followed by improvement methods and motivation. More control can be given to the learner by asking them to analyse their performance. ...read more.

Conclusion

Feed back allows performers to set future goals. Research by Bandura and Cervone in 1983 stated that 'feedback affects are enhanced by goal setting'. This will help performers to progress their skills further. As a trampolinist, I consider feedback to be a vital aspect of learning. Without extrinsic feed back, I would find it extremely hard to improve, as I wouldn't be able to tell what I was doing right and wrong. As a trampolining coach, the main types of feedback used are positive and negative. Negative feedback shouldn't be used on its own as it may de-motivate the learner, although it is extremely useful when used alongside positive feedback. It helps the learner to identify what is being performed well, and what needs to be improved. When analysing my trampolining, I tend to use knowledge of results. I look at my tariff and form score, which lets me know what areas I need to improve on. Without feedback, I think it would be extremely hard to progress, as motivation and feedback is essential for a performer. Feedback will help the performer to gain the correct technique and succeed in the sport. A learner should not be given too much detail and information, as the learner needs to develop their own awareness of what movement is good, and what is poor. ...read more.

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