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Observe three contrasting sporting activities and produce a movement analysis checklist to identify the relevant muscles, joints and bones.

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Introduction

Task 2 - By Barry Holloway Observe three contrasting sporting activities and produce a movement analysis checklist to identify the relevant muscles, joints and bones. The chosen sport to cover is swimming in which I will be analysing the breaststroke, the front crawl and the butterfly strokes. Sporting Action - Butterfly The butterfly technique with the dolphin kick consists of synchronous arm movement with a synchronous leg kick. Good technique is crucial to swim this style effectively. The wave-like body movement is also very significant, as this is the key for an easy synchronous over water recovery and breathing. In the initial position, the swimmer lies on the breast, the arms are stretched to the front, and the legs are extended to the back. Phase - Upper body Muscles Used - Pectoralis, triceps, Rectus abdominals, Trapezius, Latissimus dorsi, Flexors and extensors of the wrist and hand, deltoids, platysma, Iliacus, obliques. Contractions Used - 1 Deltoids are concentric coming out of the water, eccentric going into the water. 2 Triceps - eccentric contraction 3 Biceps - concentric contraction 4 Wrist flexors - are using an isotonic flexion contraction. 5 Pectoralis - concentric contraction 6 Rectus Abdominals - Eccentric coming out of the water, concentric going into the water. 7 Trapezius - Eccentric coming out of the water, concentric going into the water 8 Platysma, Eccentric coming out of the water, concentric going into the water Joints used - Ball & Socket (Shoulder), Hinge (Elbow), Pivot (neck), Ellipsoid and gliding joint (wrist) ...read more.

Middle

Contractions Used - 1. Gastrocnemius - There is a concentric contraction as the leg is drawn inwards and an eccentric contraction as the leg kicks out. 2. Quadraceps - There is a concentric contraction as the leg is drawn inwards and an eccentric contraction as the leg kicks out. 3. Hamstrings - There is a concentric contraction as the leg is drawn inwards and an eccentric contraction as the leg kicks out. Joints Used - Hinge joint (knee), gliding and ellipsoid joint (ankles), Ball & Socket joint (Hip), Movement Used - 1. There is both flexion and extension in all the major leg muscles. 2. There is both plantflexion & Dorsi flexion in the feet. 3. Circumduction at the hip. 4. The leg muscles are abducting away from the body. Sporting Action - Breaststroke Breaststroke is swum on the breast and is the most popular recreational swimming style due to its stability and the ability to keep the head out of the water at all times. In The breaststroke starts with the swimmer lying in the water face down, arms extended straight forward and legs extended straight to the back. Phase - Upper body Muscles Used - Pectoralis, triceps, Rectus abdominals, Trapezius, Latissimus dorsi, Flexors and extensors of the wrist and hand, deltoids, platysma, Iliacus, obliques. Contractions Used - 1. Triceps - are concentric as the arm pushes through the water propelling the body forward and eccentric as the arm comes in towards the chest. ...read more.

Conclusion

The Front crawls breathing pattern is different from the butterfly's and breaststrokes whereas the other two's are somewhat similar. They both have a similar phase where the head needs to come up for breath, the neck muscles both abduct, adduct and contract in the same way. There is a concentric contraction in the platysma as the swimmer comes up for breath and the platysma is eccentric as the head returns to the water in both the butterfly and the breastrokes. In the front crawl the head rather that come up for breath Extension & flexion Breathing pattern of butterfly & breaststroke uses adduction and abduction. Front crawl Characterized by its long overhead stroke and vigorous flutter kick, the freestyle is the fastest and most powerful of the swimming strokes. The breaststroke is the most difficult swimming stroke to master. All leg and arm movements must be made simultaneously. Only the backward and out frog-leg kick is allowed. Alternating movements are not allowed. Except for the start and the first stroke and kick after each turn, a part of the head must break the surface of the water during each stroke and kick cycle. The arm pull is a heart-shaped pattern in the front of the body. It's not a big pull like the other strokes, which is why the times in the breaststroke are comparatively slower than other strokes. Nicknamed "the fly", the butterfly is the most physically demanding of the strokes, but is also the most beautiful to watch. The butterfly features the simultaneous overhead stroke of the arms combined with the dolphin kick, in which both legs move up and down together. ...read more.

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