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The report hereafter discusses and evaluates the competing definitions as they are understood in organizational and human resources practice.

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Introduction A key issue in understanding and applying techniques of performance management is defining exactly what is meant by 'performance' and 'performance management'. The report hereafter discusses and evaluates the competing definitions as they are understood in organizational and human resources practice. Performance is a multi-level, multi-dimensional construct. It is important to understand what level of performance is considered important when an organization talks about performance management. At each level- organizational, work unit or individual; there are a combination of factors that influence performance: direct, indirect, individual and situational. Any human resource intervention designed to assist, enhance, encourage 'performance management' has to be effectively targeted at the right combination of factors (Study Guide 2004, 2-8). Performance, a Definition Contemporary organizations consider performance to fall into two major areas: performance at the individual level and performance at the organizational level (Williams 2002). At the individual level there are differing views on what performance is. Some research regards it as simply the record of outcomes achieved (Bernadin 1995). Performance has also been defined as behaviour, that is, the way in which teams and individuals get work done (Campbell 1990). At the individual level performance can be thought of as either 'what' is achieved, that is as output and results, or as 'how' it is achieved, that is demonstrated behaviors, competencies, adherence to process (Study Guide 2004, 2-6). Williams (2002, cited in Study Guide 2004, 2-7) starts with the proposition that individual performance is behavior, which is determined by factors of declarative knowledge, procedural knowledge and motivation. Declarative knowledge is the 'what' of performance; procedural knowledge is the 'how' to do' whereas motivation refers to the exercise of choice over ...read more.


Performance management is far more than its precursor 'performance appraisal', it goes beyond the annual appraisals, ratings and interviews to incorporate employees' goals, training, rewards and individual development. Thus, a performance management system focuses on an ongoing process of performance improvement, at the individual and organizational level, rather than emphasizing an annual performance review (DeSimone, Werner & Harris 2002, cited in Study Guide 2004, 1-3). There is no one right way of managing performance. The approach will depend on the context of the organization. That is, its culture, structure, technology and the type of people involved. Thus, recognizing the importance of managing within the context of the business. Organizational structure is defined as the degree of complexity, formalization and centralization crated to facilitate the coordination of activities and to control the actions of organizational members (Robbins, Waters-Marsh, Caccioppe & Millett 2001, cited in Study Guide 2004, 1-12). Organizational culture is a more intangible aspect, based on the shared values, customs, rituals and norms of the organization. Culture, is long-lasting and can often take decades to change, it is very enigmatic and complex. Culture can assist performance management - they can also act as a major impediment. Conversely, performance management can be used as a tool to change culture (Study Guide 2004, 1-14). Williams 2002 raised, from one point of view technology is part of performance management, one of the tools, that is, for managing performance. And, indeed, technology, especially information technology, has been in many cases a solution to a performance problem which has led to that business gaining competitive advantage. ...read more.


To conclude, performance management is simply a means to achieve organizational success, which enables an organization to maximize the return on their investment in human resource. Reference Ambramowicz, G. (1999). ' Performance management at Optus Communications', O'Neill, G & Kramar, right (eds), Australian Human Resources Management Vol. 2, Woodsland Pty Ltd, Warriewood, NSW, 1999, pp. 61-8 Armstrong, M. & Baron, A. (1998). Performance Management: The New Realities, London: Institute of Personnel and Development. Bredrup, H. (1995). Performance Management: A Business Process Benchmarking Approach, Chapman & Hall, London. Campbell, J. (1990). Modeling the performance prediction problem in industrial and organizational psychology. In M.D.Dunnette and L.M. Hough (eds) Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologist Press. De Cieri, H & Kramar, R. (2002). Human Resource Management in Australia: Strategy People Performance. McGraw-Hill, Australia. DeSimone,R., Werner, J., & Harries, D. (2002). Human Resource Development, 3rd Edition. Thomson, United States Gettler, L. (2000). 'New Economy unearths hidden asset - Human Capital'. The Age, 2 June 2000, p. 5. Hartle, F. (1995). How to Re-engineer your performance Management Process. London: Kogan Page. Mclnerney, M. (2000). ' The AMP Story: Going global with performance management'. HR Monthly, May 2000, p. 20. Performance Management Study Guide. (2004). Central Queensland University. Robbins, S., Bergman, R., Stagg, I & Coulter, M. (2000). Management, 2nd edn. Prentice Hall, Australia. Robbins, S., Waters-Marsh, T., Cacioppe, R. & Millett, B. (2001). Organizational Behaviour: Concepts, Controversies and Applications: Australia and New Zealand. Prentice Hall, Sydney. Sofo, F. (1999). Human Resource Development. Business & Professional Publishing. Worriedwood, Australia. Williams, R.(2002). Managing Employee Performance: Design and Implementation in Organizations. Thomson Learning, London. Performance Management HRMT 19012 Assignment One Student: MI Zhi Jie S0039857 1 ...read more.

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