• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Skeletal System.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The Skeletal System Skeletal system - The skeletal system is the system of interconnecting bones which form the rigid framework of the human body. The skeletal system not only provides the body with form, but also protects and supports its soft organs and tissues. It also provides attachments for muscles and serves as a system of levers essential for locomotion. The functions of the human skeleton are: * To provide shape for the body. * To provide support for the body. * To protect delicate organs e.g. brain. * To provide a large surface area for the attachment of muscles. * To provide a lever system through which muscles can pull. * To provide a large surface area of the attachment of muscles. * To manufacture red blood cells and to store fat, calcium and phosphate. Here is a labelled diagram of the human skeleton: The human skeleton is divided into appendicular skeleton and axial skeleton. Axial Skeleton Appendicula Skeleton * Cranium * Mandible * Scapula * Ribs * Spinal column * Pelvis * Carpals * Radius * Ulna * Humerus * Pectoral girdle * Femur * Tibia * Fibula * Tarsal Components of bones Examples of each type of bone are shown below in diagram. Bone is the hardest connective tissue in the body, mainly because it contains deposits of calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate. Bone acts as a store for calcium, and as a result of regular exercise more calcium is deposited, increasing bone density. ...read more.

Middle

This area allows the greatest amount of movement of bending forwards, backwards and side to side. This is also the most common area for back injuries due to the amount of movement and is an area which should be especially worked upon for flexibility exercises. Sacral vertebrae - there are five vertebrae in this region which are fused together to become one. This is where the pelvis is joined to the spine and where the body mass is transmitted to the hips and legs. Coccyx (tail) - there is four vertebrae fused together and is the base of the spine. It is all that remains of what was a tail before humans evolved, hence the name 'tail bone'. The general functions of the spine are: * To keep the body upright * To help posture and movement * To act as a shock absorber * To protect the spinal column. Joints "The point of connection between two bones or elements of a skeleton (especially if the articulation allows motion)" www.cogsci.princeton.edu/cgi-bin/webwn There are 3 main types of joints: * Fibrous joints (or Sutured) - are very stable joints in which the bones are joined by very strong fibres allowing no observable movement e.g. the sutures in the skull (honeybourne et el. 2000) www.science.ubc.ca * Cartilaginous joints - are joined by a tough, fibrous cartilage which provides stability but also allowing a small degree of movement e.g. intervertebral disks www.37c.com.cn/education * Synovial joints - are the most common type of joint in the body, allow a wide range of movement in most cases although some (e.g. ...read more.

Conclusion

These movements are given special names; Flexion -Bending the joint to make the angle between the two bones smaller. When you touch your right shoulder with your right hand, your elbow is in flexion (flexed). Extension - Straightening a joint to make the angle larger. If you straighten your legs, the knees have undergone extension (extended). Abduction - Moving away from the median plane. When you stand with your feet apart, your legs are in abduction (abducted). Adduction - The opposite of abduction. If you sqeeze your knees together, you are adducting your legs. Circumduction - A circular motion combining flexion, extension, abduction and adduction. Making circles in the air with your arms Rotation - is the movement of bone around a central axis. For instance, the arm has both internal and external rotation. Supination - A movement of the forearm in which the palm faces posteriorly. It is when your palms are faced up. Pronation - A movement of the forearm in which the palm faces anteriorly. It is when your palms are faced down. Eversion - is the movement of the sole of the foot outward at the ankle Inversion - is the movement of the sole of the foot inward at the ankle. Dorsiflexion - Movement of the ankle in the sagittal plane which decreases the angle between the foot and the lower leg when you point your foot towards your head. Plantarflexion - Movement of the ankle in the sagittal plane which increases the angle between the foot and the lower leg when you stand on 'tip-toes' your ankles are in plantar flexion. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology essays

  1. Btec sport, skeletal system

    The color of yellow marrow is due to the much higher number of fat cells. Both types of bone marrow contain numerous blood vessels and capillaries. Bone marrow stores minerals such as calcium and phosphorus which are released into the blood Compact bone tissues Compact bone tissues are dense making it able to provide protection, support and strength.

  2. Skeletal System and Joints

    This movement requires the brachioradialis in the forearm. This type of joint is helpful in ice hockey as supple wrist are needed so that fine movements can be made with the ice hockey stick the wide range of movement allows more complex movements.

  1. structure and function of the digestive system and nutrients

    Potassium is also important in the transmission of nerve impulses, heart rhythm and muscle function Most fruit and vegetables contain potassium, with bananas, strawberries, fresh orange juice, apricots, prunes, potatoes and green leafy vegetables providing the best sources. Other sources are almonds, barley, brown rice, chick peas, corn, kidney beans and tofu.

  2. The Skeletal System

    The skeleton plays an important part in movement by providing a series of movable levers that can move on their own, which the muscles can pull on to move different parts of the body, it also supports and protects the internal body organs.

  1. Physiology Within Sport

    is due to the continuous high blood pressure flowing through them, as the muscle tissue generates more heat this allows the muscle the ability to stretch more efficiently, in exercise science this is known as becoming more Pliable.

  2. The Structure of Skeletal Muscle.

    A picture of Cardiac Muscle is as follows: (www.google.com) Cardiac muscle also has a number of unique features that reflect its function of pumping blood. * The myofibrils of each cell (and cardiac muscle is made of single cells and a single nucleus)

  1. Respiratory system

    Unlike the parietal pleura the visceral pleura is not sensitive to pain. Thoracentesis, http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/Thoracentesis, Webmd.com J Toxicol Environ Health. 1985;15(5):673-86., R.F. Dodson http://www.asbestos.net/medical-glossary/visceral-pleura.html Pleural fluid The excess fluid in the lungs and chest cavity is known as pleural fluid (effusion).

  2. Anatomy For BTEC Sport - bones and muscles.

    Fixator â These muscles hold other joints in place so that only the desired movement takes place. So during a bicep curl for example, the fixator muscle would be the deltoid as this holds the surrounding joints in place to stop any unwanted movement during the bicep curl. 1.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work