• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Skeletal System.

Extracts from this document...


The Skeletal System Skeletal system - The skeletal system is the system of interconnecting bones which form the rigid framework of the human body. The skeletal system not only provides the body with form, but also protects and supports its soft organs and tissues. It also provides attachments for muscles and serves as a system of levers essential for locomotion. The functions of the human skeleton are: * To provide shape for the body. * To provide support for the body. * To protect delicate organs e.g. brain. * To provide a large surface area for the attachment of muscles. * To provide a lever system through which muscles can pull. * To provide a large surface area of the attachment of muscles. * To manufacture red blood cells and to store fat, calcium and phosphate. Here is a labelled diagram of the human skeleton: The human skeleton is divided into appendicular skeleton and axial skeleton. Axial Skeleton Appendicula Skeleton * Cranium * Mandible * Scapula * Ribs * Spinal column * Pelvis * Carpals * Radius * Ulna * Humerus * Pectoral girdle * Femur * Tibia * Fibula * Tarsal Components of bones Examples of each type of bone are shown below in diagram. Bone is the hardest connective tissue in the body, mainly because it contains deposits of calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate. Bone acts as a store for calcium, and as a result of regular exercise more calcium is deposited, increasing bone density. ...read more.


This area allows the greatest amount of movement of bending forwards, backwards and side to side. This is also the most common area for back injuries due to the amount of movement and is an area which should be especially worked upon for flexibility exercises. Sacral vertebrae - there are five vertebrae in this region which are fused together to become one. This is where the pelvis is joined to the spine and where the body mass is transmitted to the hips and legs. Coccyx (tail) - there is four vertebrae fused together and is the base of the spine. It is all that remains of what was a tail before humans evolved, hence the name 'tail bone'. The general functions of the spine are: * To keep the body upright * To help posture and movement * To act as a shock absorber * To protect the spinal column. Joints "The point of connection between two bones or elements of a skeleton (especially if the articulation allows motion)" www.cogsci.princeton.edu/cgi-bin/webwn There are 3 main types of joints: * Fibrous joints (or Sutured) - are very stable joints in which the bones are joined by very strong fibres allowing no observable movement e.g. the sutures in the skull (honeybourne et el. 2000) www.science.ubc.ca * Cartilaginous joints - are joined by a tough, fibrous cartilage which provides stability but also allowing a small degree of movement e.g. intervertebral disks www.37c.com.cn/education * Synovial joints - are the most common type of joint in the body, allow a wide range of movement in most cases although some (e.g. ...read more.


These movements are given special names; Flexion -Bending the joint to make the angle between the two bones smaller. When you touch your right shoulder with your right hand, your elbow is in flexion (flexed). Extension - Straightening a joint to make the angle larger. If you straighten your legs, the knees have undergone extension (extended). Abduction - Moving away from the median plane. When you stand with your feet apart, your legs are in abduction (abducted). Adduction - The opposite of abduction. If you sqeeze your knees together, you are adducting your legs. Circumduction - A circular motion combining flexion, extension, abduction and adduction. Making circles in the air with your arms Rotation - is the movement of bone around a central axis. For instance, the arm has both internal and external rotation. Supination - A movement of the forearm in which the palm faces posteriorly. It is when your palms are faced up. Pronation - A movement of the forearm in which the palm faces anteriorly. It is when your palms are faced down. Eversion - is the movement of the sole of the foot outward at the ankle Inversion - is the movement of the sole of the foot inward at the ankle. Dorsiflexion - Movement of the ankle in the sagittal plane which decreases the angle between the foot and the lower leg when you point your foot towards your head. Plantarflexion - Movement of the ankle in the sagittal plane which increases the angle between the foot and the lower leg when you stand on 'tip-toes' your ankles are in plantar flexion. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Anatomy & Physiology essays

  1. Btec sport, skeletal system

    The color of yellow marrow is due to the much higher number of fat cells. Both types of bone marrow contain numerous blood vessels and capillaries. Bone marrow stores minerals such as calcium and phosphorus which are released into the blood Compact bone tissues Compact bone tissues are dense making it able to provide protection, support and strength.

  2. Skeletal System and Joints

    Pivot joints, these allow only rotation. A good example of this the neck, as a turn of the head can make a big difference in a football game. When a midfielder is considering his options they need to turn their head to look for the best player to pass to.

  1. Anatomy for sports and exercise Task 1The function of a skeleton is to give ...

    We may use our arms to protect most parts of our body. Femur, tibia, tarsal, phalanges and patella make up our lower limb which is known as our leg. We use our leg to walk. Task 2 Joints are based upon their structure and function.

  2. A.S Personal exercise program for netball

    Reversibility When an athletes training decreases or ceases for long periods of time, their fitness levels deteriorate. Will not make program effective at all so you need to ensure you do not put over 48 hours worth of rest init and no less so u do not exhaust yourself or

  1. The Axial and Appendicular Skeletons.

    Plantarflextion - this occurs at the ankle joint and is typified by the pointing of the toes, it occurs on the median plane about a horizontal axis. Dorsiflextion - this also occurs at the ankle joint when the foot is raised upwards towards the tibia, this occurs in a median plane on a horizontal axis.

  2. Physiology Within Sport

    exercise, therefore throughout this period there is enough time to continuously resynthesise the ATP to create more ATP. ATP-CP Lactic Acid System Aerobic System Aerobic/Anaerobic Anaerobic Anaerobic Aerobic Product used to Resynthesise the ATP Creatine Phosphate Glycogen/Glucose Proteins/ Fats / Carbohydrates Site Of reaction Sarcoplasm Sarcoplasm Mitochondria Controlling Enzyme Creatine

  1. The skeletal system in the body and what it does within the body

    It is found on short and flat bones. Joints can be placed into three classes fixed joints (synartrodial), cartilaginous joints (amphiarthrodial) and synovial joints (diarthrodial). Fixed joints have no movement what so ever. They are very strong and have tough tissue called fibrous tissue that lies between the ends of the bone, which are joined together (class PowerPoint.

  2. Respiratory system

    http://medicalimages.allrefer.com/large/pleural-smear.jpg Alveoli At the end of every alveolar duct, there are sac-like structures called alveoli. They are all grouped together like little caves and they produce surfactant. The exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen take place in these cave-like structures.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work