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Analyse the main factors that limit the effectiveness of Parliament

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Analyse the main factors that limit the effectiveness of Parliament Ursula Oliver 12RJ The Westminster Model is what generally represents the UK system of government, as Parliament provides representative and responsible government and therefore Parliament influences policy decisions. However, with the Whitehall Model comes debate over whether Parliament power has shifted to the executive. Furthermore, theories of parliamentary power have also included the Transformative Model, which provides an alternative to the other two models. Suggesting that parliament is no longer a policy-making body or irrelevant, but a body which 'transforms' policy as a result of reacting to executive initiatives, the Transformative Model has become widely recognised in recent years. The extent of party unity influences parliament's effectiveness as it is key to understanding the relationship between government and parliament. ...read more.


When a party has a smaller majority, this leaves room for more room for backbenchers to become more powerful. Thus, a larger majority weakens them. During the Labour Government of '74-'49, their majority was at most 4. This lead to an increase of defeats in the House of Commons (at least 41 times) but contradicts the landslide majorities of '97 and '01 as Labour were not defeated by the Commons at all in its first two terms. The House of Lords, as part of Parliament, and its impact to parliamentary effectiveness can be determined in different ways. Party unity is much more relaxed in the Lords, for example with peers not aligning themselves to specific parties necessarily and so the government has less ability to discipline peers and so 'enforce' whips. ...read more.


Though essentially the Commons can overrule the Lords, as it is time-consuming and creates 'parliamentary ping-pong' governments are more likely to try and reach a compromise with the Lords. In this way, the impact of the Lords can affect overall parliamentary effectiveness as the approval of the Lords is valuable to the Commons. As the House of Commons generally does dominate Parliament, the Lords have remained a subordinate chamber. Whether this results in parliamentary effectiveness being lost or not, they remain as a second chamber ensuring checks on the government and their approval is sill important. Party unity has, however declined which has resulted in politicians focussing more on politics as their career so they have also become more active in their constituencies, and thus parliament therefore acts more favourably to the public, though the size of a majority determines how effective the Commons is in relation to the Lords. ...read more.

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