• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

An investigation into the effect free and cued recall has on the retrieval of information

Extracts from this document...


An investigation into the effect free and cued recall has on the retrieval of information. Contents Abstract Introduction Aims Hypothesis Method - Design Participants Materials Procedure Results Discussion References Appendix 1 - Brief, Standardised Instructions and Debrief. Appendix 2 - Word list Appendix 3 - Cued recall sample answer sheet Appendix 4 - Free recall sample answer sheet Appendix 5 - Full results and calculations Abstract This is an experiment investigating the effects cues have on the recall of information based on the investigation by Tulving and Pearlstone (1966). In their investigation participants were given a list of words comprising 12 categories with 4 words under each category to study and then to recall as many words as possible. The participants were either given a blank sheet or a sheet with category titles on it. Cues can be used as a way to trigger memory and to remember information. The hypothesis to be proved is whether the participants remember more words from the word list if they are given cues. The participants used are students from Exeter College, during college hours. The participants will be male and female between the ages of 16-19. There were 10 students in each condition. The investigation was carried out using independent measures design and the participants were gathered using opportunity sampling. The experiment itself was a sheet of A4 paper with 48 words written on it. The participants were given a set amount of time to study the sheet before it was taken off of them. ...read more.


from waking up or too tired from the day and at a time when there were not too many other students around. Materials The question sheet consisted of 12 randomly selected categories, with each category containing 4 words. The list of 48 words was presented to participants, who were then asked to study the words for 60 seconds, after that time the question sheet was taken off them and replaced by the answer sheet and a pen. The answer sheet differed depending on which condition the participant took part in. in the cued recall condition the answer sheet showed the category titles whilst the free recall answer sheet was blank. All participants were given the same standardised instructions and were all briefed and debriefed. (See appendix) Ethical issues Before the experiment took place, the participant was briefed and made aware that they were free to leave the experiment at any time, permission was asked to use their results and that they would remain confidential. A set of standardised instructions was used. At the end of the experiment the participants were fully debriefed and given an opportunity to ask any questions. This was done to make sure the participants understood their right to withdraw and that they gave an informed consent of taking part in this study. (See appendix for the standardised instructions, brief and debrief.) Procedure Participants were approached on the Exeter College; Hele Road site outside the reception and asked if they would not mind taking part in a psychological experiment. ...read more.


After 60 seconds I will take that sheet away and replace it with either a blank or a sheet with the category titles on it. You will then have as much time as you need to recall as many words as you can, in any order. Do you still wish to continue? Debrief Thank you for participating, do you still agree to your results being used, confidentially, in this experiment? This experiment was conducted to investigate whether retrieval cues have an effect on the recall of information. It is expected that the participants will recall more words if they are given cues, as this should trigger the memory. Do you have any questions? Thank you, Signed Date Table showing all scores gained from the investigation Participant - Free Recall Number of words recalled (Free) Participant - Cued Recall Number of words recalled (Cued) 1 20 1 39 2 19 2 42 3 15 3 40 4 13 4 22 5 16 5 39 6 21 6 41 7 15 7 32 8 19 8 43 9 18 9 30 10 16 10 37 Total 172 365 Calculations for mean score. 172/10 = 17.2 365/10 = 36.5 Word list Food Drink Animals Transport Sausage Water Meerkat Car Potato Beer Hedgehog Train Pepper Vimto Elephant Bike Radish Vodka Squirrel Walk Bike Colour Shape Body Part BMX Red Circle Leg Mountain Yellow Square Arm Racing Purple Triangle Head Stunt Blue Rectangle Feet Car Material Music Artist Vauxhall Glass Rock Van Gogh Peugeot Metal Punk Turner Ford Wood Pop Klimt BMW Cotton Rap Picasso Appendices By Jess Howell ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays


    Here there will be 2 groups of 20 participants. This is split into 2 sets of 10 in which will see 10 do the experiment in the morning and 10 in the afternoon. This will be repeated with the 2nd group where the distraction would be tested.

  2. This study is based on the theory of cue dependent forgetting - more specifically, ...

    Each measure of the mean recall is higher in the classroom although the median and mode are very crude measures of central tendency and as such can be disregarded. The data is nominal so the mean is the most appropriate measure of central tendency.

  1. The Stroop Effect

    of noise could be controlled and kept similar for all participants it will make the results more valid. A second limitation of the study is to do with the sampling method used; opportunity sampling was used within the college, the researcher adopted an opportunity sampling method.

  2. Investigating the short-term memory

    Finally, the standard deviation calculations shows that the result recorded for group 1 are more reliable than those recorded for group 2. With group 1 having a standard deviation of 3.5 which is slightly closer to zero, making the result more reliable than group 2's result with 8 which is

  1. Stroop Effect

    It can be used with data on an interval level of measurement, which is then converted to an ordinal level for the purpose of the test Results: The aim of this investigation is to find out whether there is

  2. "An experiment to see the effect of chunking on short-term memory recall".

    For example by completing the first task which included triograms and then seeing the next list of words which were acronyms, the participants might realise that they are expected to do worse in the second experiment and therefore do worse on purpose which would mean that the results were not accurate.

  1. A Study to Investigate Whether Leading Questions have an Effect on Memory

    experiment, however the main issue that should be controlled is informed consent. It is very important to have consent from participants as they must feel that they will not be harmed or embarrassed and that they have the right to withdraw at any point.

  2. Find out if recall of words is better when recalled in the environmental context ...

    to alter the person's state of mind, but rather we are going to alter a person's body position and comfort level by using various types of chairs. The Hardman and Miles study manipulated people's bodies by either using exercise or none exercise and their results were significant by merely manipulating body movement.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work