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Attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder.

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Laura Harris TED 5378 Research Paper ADHD Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disability in which children consistently show one or more of the following characteristics over a period of time. (1) Inattention, (2) hyperactivity, and (3) impulsivity (Kirst-Ashman, Zastrow 2004). Children who are inattentive have difficulty focusing on any one thing and may get bored with a task after only a few minutes. Children who are hyperactive show high levels of physical activity, almost always seeming to be in motion. Children who are impulsive have difficulty curbing their reactions and don't do a good job of thinking before they act. Depending on the characteristics that children with ADHD display, they can be diagnosed as (1) ADHD with predominantly inattention, (2) ADHD with predominantly hyperactivity/impulsivity, or (3) ...read more.


They may say the child is "always on the go" or "never seems to listen". Many children with ADHD are difficult to discipline, have low frustration tolerance, and have problems in peer relations. Other common characteristics of children with ADHD include general immaturity and clumsiness. Although signs of ADHD are often present in the preschool years, their classification often doesn't take place until the elementary school years (Kirst-Ashman, Zastrow, 2004). The increase academic and social demands of formal schooling, as well as stricter standards for behavior control often illuminate the problems of the child with ADHD. Elementary school teachers typically report that this type of child has difficulty in working independently, completing seat work, and organizing work. Restlessness and distractibility are also very common. ...read more.


One strategy a teacher can use is allowing the student with ADHD to move around the classroom instead of being restricted to their desk. It is estimated that about eighty-five to ninety percent of students with ADHD are taking stimulant medication such as Ritalin to control their behavior (Kirst-Ashman, Zastrow, 2004). A child should be given medication only after a complete assessment that includes a physical examination. Typically a small dose is administered as a trial to examine its effects. If the child adequately tolerates the small dose, the dosage may be increased. The problem behaviors of students with ADHD can be temporarily controlled with prescriptive stimulants (Kirst-Ashman, Zastrow, 2004). For many other children with ADHD, a combination of medication, behavior management, effective teaching, and parental monitoring improves their behavior. However, not all children with ADHD respond positively to prescription stimulants, and some critics believe that physicians are too quick in prescribing stimulants for children with milder forms of ADHD. ...read more.

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