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Compare and contrast any two schools of psychology

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Introduction

Compare and contrast any two schools of psychology There are many different schools of psychology, each have their own views and they all look at psychology from different perspectives. I am going to outline six perspectives and then compare and contrast two schools. The biological perspective and major figures such as Karl Lashley looks to the body to explain the mind, they look at hormones, genes, the brain, and the central nervous system to explain the way we think, feel and act. The psychodynamic perspective and major figures such as Sigmund Freud views behaviour as driven by powerful mental conflicts locked deep within the subconscious. The behaviourist perspective and major figures such as John Watson believe that behaviour is simply a response to an environmental event. They believe that there is an order to how people work. The humanist perspective and major figures such as Carl Rodgers believe that people are naturally good, they believe that if humans are left to their own they will strive to become the best they can be. ...read more.

Middle

Classical and operant conditioning played a large part in Skinners research (Glassman, 2000). In a traditional behavioural approach, Skinner followed in the footsteps of Pavlov and Watson. This view puts across that the subject matter of human psychology is only the behaviour of the human being. Behaviourism claims that consciousness is neither a definite nor a usable concept. The behaviourist holds the belief in the existence of consciousness; it goes back to the ancient days of superstition and magic. The behaviourists asks: why don't we make what we can (Nye, 2000). The initial influence of behaviourism on psychology was to minimize the study of the mental processes, emotions, and feelings and to substitute the study of the objective behaviour of individuals in relation to their environment by means of experimental methods. This orientation suggested a way to relate human and animal research and to bring psychology into line with the natural sciences (Wadeley, 1997). ...read more.

Conclusion

In contrast the main assumption of the psychodynamic approach is that an individuals personality is contained deep inside the individual, here behaviour is controlled by the interaction of the id, ego and super ego. The behaviourist approach opposes the tripartite personality theory as it cannot be scientifically proven (Eysenck, 2003). The psychodynamic approach treats abnormality through assessing the unconscious using dream analysis and free association, in order to find the source of the problem. On the other hand, the behaviourist treatment to abnormality would be focused on eliminating the maladaptive behaviour through conditioning. Consequently, a Freudian based theory would argue that because the behavioural model does not address the underlying cause of the illness, then symptoms will resurface in other ways (Glassman, 2000). In conclusion, behaviourists believe that all behaviour is learned and can be understood via principles of conditioning from the individual's environment. In contrast the psychodynamic approach looks at conflicts in the subconscious to explain behaviour. In comparison, the behaviourist focuses on external factors that can explain behaviour whereas the psychoanalyst focuses on internal factors that can explain behaviour (Carlson, Buskist, & Martin, 2000). ...read more.

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