• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Critically Discuss the Causes of one Psychological Disorder Depression is one of the most common and treatable of all mental illnesses

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Student: Zoe Wood Tutor: Nick Warmsley Theories of Depression ONCW - Psychology - Level 3 Assignment 2 Date of Submission: 15th March 2006 Critically Discuss the Causes of one Psychological Disorder Depression is one of the most common and treatable of all mental illnesses. The term 'depression' can be confusing and often referred to describe normal emotional reactions; however it is a widely studied psychological disorder that many people can suffer from. 340 million people in the world suffer from this mental disorder, which no one is immune to. It can happen to anybody from any social class, from any country, of any race. Everybody can feel 'down in the dumps' at times. These feelings of sadness and discouragement are perfectly normal especially during hard times, but a person who constantly feels like this and cannot 'snap out of it' may be a sufferer of this illness. Depression can take several other forms. In bipolar disorder, known as manic-depressive illness, a person's mood swings back and fourth between depression and mania. People with seasonal effective disorder, suffer from depression normally during the autumn and winter when there are fewer hours of daylight. ...read more.

Middle

Hendler & Prescott (1999) conducted the same study using 3790 twin pairs and found a heritability factor of 39% with the remaining 61% down to environmental factors. Unlike Bierut et al he found no difference between males and females. It should be noted, however, that there have been criticisms of the underlying assumptions of twin studies. One of the most common criticisms is what effects the environment has on the study. Twins usually share the same environment as they develop through time, but the factor is dismissed as a component. Reiss and Neiderhiser (2000) suggested that "it needs to be subjected to continuing criticisms as we learn more about the nuances of sibling relationship and how they evolve overtime. It may well be that subtle differences in the social worlds of identical twins in comparison to fraternal twins are still masquerading as genetic influence" They do not suggest ignoring the studies altogether but suggest integration with observations about the social environment in developmental theories. Some psychologists thought that research from twin studies were limited due to the fact stated that they usually shared the same environments. ...read more.

Conclusion

Parker et al (1998) devised a 'lock and key' hypothesis to establish the way depression is triggered off. Early adverse experiences, such as parents dying and being taken into care, which is the lock, is triggered off by later experiences, such as loss of your job, which is the key. They interviewed 270 severely disturbed patients and found that the 'lock and key' hypothesis in one third of the cases. This, again like the other theories, show that there are only a small number of people, from the sample used that have the 'lock and key' hypothesis, meaning the hypothesis is not a strong factor that causes depression. It is clear form all the studies undertaken that there is no black and white answer to reveal how and why people suffer from depression. In reviewing a multitude of twins, adoption and family studies, it is clear to see that the foundation for each human is diverse in structure. For some cases genetics seems dominant, in some environment explains all, and in others it is the two factors combined together making people who and what they are. This is a strong indicator that the causes of depression will never be put down to one factor and the reason will have to be rationalised on a case by case basis. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Physiological Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Physiological Psychology essays

  1. Anxiety Disorders

    Family Therapy - Because OCD often causes problems in family life and social adjustment, family therapy is often advised. Family therapy promotes understanding of the disorder and can help reduce family conflicts. It can also motivate family members and teach them how to help their loved one.

  2. Depression - Gender Differences.

    Research has shown that anorexia nervosa consists of several psychopathological components as well as the physical components, and that the psychopathological characteristics often include such things as depression, anxiety, and difficulty in social situations, as well as low self-esteem (Wilcox, 1996).

  1. Stress can be explained as the stimulus in the environment that triggers a stress ...

    Cultures have a big impact on how people live & how others react to them. Biological Studies - COOPER et al (1999) suggested that the higher the level of cardiovascular disorder that is found in African-Americans could be due to genes, more commonly found in this group, which contributes to high blood pressure.

  2. Discuss two or more psychological explanations of one eating disorder.

    -The joint concern for the child will bring the parents back together. Commentary Support for Bruch - Steiner says that parents of teens with AN tend to define their child's physical needs rather than the child. - Research also claims that those with AN rely on others opinions and views, and have a lack of control.

  1. Nursing care as applied to a client with a mental health problem

    She would often say "Well I would go out but I have never felt very well when I think about it so I stay indoors". She also perceived that her illness limited her in her activities of daily living and this therefore lowered her mood and esteem regarding her abilities.

  2. Psychological influences in childbearing and midwifery practice - A Rite of Passage: Transition from ...

    Key skills that a midwife would require to practice effectively would be: * good communication skills and sensitivity when asking questions * exceptional observational skills * an empathetic relationship with the women, her partner and family * a core knowledge of the signs and symptoms of depression Suggested core knowledge

  1. Teenagers in Depression.

    Society all too often views teenagers for what they can be instead of for who they are. Their identity is fragile and is threatened by fears of rejection, feelings of failure, and of being different. These young people face stress in school as well as a lack of resources in a cash-stricken education system.

  2. Free essay

    Schizophrenia is a mental disorder which usually starts between the ages of 15 ...

    Potency referred to the ability of the drug to bind to dopamine receptors, and not to the effectiveness of the drug. High-potency antipsychotics such as haloperidol, in general, have doses of a few milligrams and cause less sleepiness and calming effects than low-potency antipsychotics such as chlorpromazine and thioridazine, which have dosages of several hundred milligrams.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work