• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Short Term Memory & Long Term Memory. Capacty and duration of each and the results of experiments to test memory.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

STM & LTM Capacity LTM has been considered by many scientists to have an unlimited capacity. It is possible to lost information from LTM by decay or interference, but this is not due to it's capacity. STM has a very limited capacity (storage space). An example this short capacity is if you are told a phone number, you can just about write it down with no delay. If there were some sort of distraction task or delay, the last figure in the number will be displaced. If the phone number is repeated, this acts as a rehearsal. However when new information is trying to get in (the distracter task) some of the numbers will be displaced from your STM. Another example of your STM's capacity is arithmetic. When faced with simple addition or subtraction, we normally have no problems working something out, however when faced with more complex formulas we start to struggle. This shows that our STM can only perform a small number of processes at one time. Many psychologists have performed experiments to try and obtain a better understanding on the capacity of our STM. One of those is George Miller. ...read more.

Middle

Reading aloud helps people remember more digits because some letters are temporarily in the echoic memory and can be recalled easier. Pronunciation time affects STM, this is the time it takes to articulate words which can vary in language or age of participants, for example a test in Arabic, where words take longer to articulate, will result in les words recalled, or young children, who take longer to build words up in their mind, will not be able to recall as many. Also individual differences affects STM. Some may suffer from anxiety when in a laboratory environment, and so will have a shorter span in their STM. Duration It is generally accepted that STM doesn't have a very high duration and can only hold few items at one time. Information that we need to retain over a longer period of time will be transferred form STM to LTM by rehearsing this information to ourselves. A rehearsal loop is done by repeating the information in STM. This will strengthen the memory trace so it will potentially stay in our LTM until we die. ...read more.

Conclusion

Peterson and Peterson Aim - To distinguish the effect of a timed delay, when recalling from STM. (IV - time delay, DV - quality of recall) Procedures - Participants were asked to look at a trigram (3 consonants not making up a specific word or sound) and asked to count backwards, in threes for varied amounts of time. They used 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 second intervals. They then had to repeat the trigram. Findings - They found that they could recall the letters after the 3-second interval 80% of the time. The recall, however became progressively worse as the time delay got longer and after an 18 second interval, less than 10% was recalled correctly. Conclusions - Peterson and Peterson showed from this experiment that when rehearsal is prevented (distracter task), decay of the STM occurs more rapidly Criticisms - This study lacks in ecological validity, because remembering these trigrams is unlikely to occur in someone's real life situations, because they were not words and had no meaning, other studies and research shows that more meaningful information is more likely to be stored in the STM for longer. (mundane realism) ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    To retain recall, which is more beneficial, rote rehearsal or imagery?

    4 star(s)

    Some of the other sampling methods consisted of collecting data, and specializing in a particular area of research. There was simply not enough time available to do those types of research methods.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    The Memory Process. This paper will describe a memory test using numbers, letters, and ...

    3 star(s)

    Furthermore, the measures of working memory are superior interpreters of a more multifaceted cognitive capacity, for example, academic achievement, reasoning, broad spatial and verbal ability, and quite possibly, aspects of intelligence (Terry, 2009). Concepts of Short Term Memory Short-term memory is a type of memory that is restricted in its capacity and length of time.

  1. SHORT TERM MEMORY

    Memory is defined as the storage of information over a certain period of time. So the experimenter will examine how information is recalled from short-term memory. A distraction will be added giving the possibility of recall being affected by the distraction.

  2. An investigation into the Affect of Organisation on memory.

    * Dependant variable The dependant variable is what is affected by the independent variable, it is also measurable. This is how successfully people remember. I can measure the dependent variable by recording how many words are recalled. *The two lists contain the same words, Universal words were chosen for the

  1. How interference affects memory recall

    I will then take them in a quiet class the first 5 girls and 5 boys will be tested together in the interference condition. The next 5 girls and 5 boys will then be tested after. Each group has two minutes to learn the list of words and then the

  2. Psychology Retrospective Interference coursework

    Identify the aim of the research and state the experimental/alternative hypothesis. The aim of this coursework is to partially replicate McGeoch and McDonald's experiment (1931) to investigate interference theory of LTM and to assess retroactive interference theory in LTM. The experimental/ alternative hypothesis is the group of participants that rested

  1. The Effects of Chunking and Distraction on Short Term Memory Recall

    An example is that of a patient referred to as HM, who developed an incapacity learn new material (Milner 1966). HM underwent surgery to remove portions of his temporal lobes to stop the seizures he had suffered from since a child.

  2. Investigating the short-term memory

    The results clearly showed that group 1 without the music distraction recalled the words form the list better than group 2 with the music distraction. Conducting this experiment showed that the music as an added distraction affected the rehearsal process for the words.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work