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In what ways do human beings modify the composition of the urban atmosphere? How do such atmospheric modifications affect the nature of precipitation in urban areas?

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Introduction

In what ways do human beings modify the composition of the urban atmosphere? How do such atmospheric modifications affect the nature of precipitation in urban areas? Evaluate the impacts of urban precipitation on the living environment. With increasing population, rapid urban growth, industrialization and advancement in technology, composition of the urban atmosphere is modified by human activities. Increasing dust and gaseous and solid particles are emitted into the sky. More current rainfall especially in form of acid rain is received in urban area. Living environment is adversely affected. Burring of fossil fuels such as coal, peat and wood during manufacturing processes produce man made particulate matter to the atmosphere. During mining and smelting ores, quarrying cement manufacturing, and refining fossil fuels, major polluters: nitrogen oxides, particulate, sulphur dioxides, carbon oxides, hydrogen sulphide and acid mists are introduced into the atmosphere. Carbon monoxide is toxic gas produced by incomplete combustion of fossil fuel like coal and petroleum. ...read more.

Middle

With the increasing industrial activities, air pollution is produced. Gases in the atmosphere are altered. There may be three to seven times more dust particles in urban areas than in rural area. Urban areas may have up to 200 times sulphur dioxide and 10 time more nitrogen oxides and 10 times more hydrocarbons, and twice as much as carbon dioxide. The modification of compositional atmosphere affect nature of precipitation in urban areas. There is more frequent convection rainfall and acid rain. The pollutants are good heat absorbers. Temperatures in urban areas are higher than in rural areas. The heat island effect means the degree of warning diminishes slowly outward from the city center, through suburbs and then decreases markedly at the city periphery. High temperature promotes the upward movement of unstable air. Pollutants provide density of condensation nuclei for cloud formation and rainfall formation. The mean annual precipitation and the number of days with less than 5mm of rainfall are both 10% greater in urban areas. ...read more.

Conclusion

In time, trees become less resistant to drought and disease. Birds dusk, grebes are affected because of their reliance on food from acidified watercourses and lake. The effect of acid rain pass along the food chain and human beings are at risk. Acid rain is also dangerous to human health. In the USA, SO2 is recognized as the major causes of lung disease after active and passive smoking. Acid and polluted smog produces severe health problem for many people. There is also economic cost because of the fall in crop yields. In Poland, the costs of acid damage are equivalent to 10% of the country's GVP. In Canada, sugar production has reduced and the timber growth has also declined markedly. The sulphuric acid also causes corrosion of metal and limestone, and chemical weathering to man-made structure, i.e. buildings. In conclusion, human activities manipulate the natural environment and modify the composition of atmosphere. Pollutants increase and acid rain become more likely to occur. In return, the living environment is affected. ...read more.

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