• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Planning an investigation into salt marsh and sand dune vegetation.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Pagham Harbour Salt Marsh Pagham Harbour is a natural harbour on England's south coast. It is south of the city of Chichester and near the towns of Pagham and Selsey. Its importance for wildlife has seen it designated a Site of Special Scientific Interest, a Special Protection Area and a Ramsar site. In spring or autumn rare migratory birds can often be seen. Pagham Harbour Local Nature Reserve covers 1,450 acres (6 km2) of salt marsh, mudflats, farmland, copses, lagoons, reed beds and shingle beaches. The study of periwinkle population took place in Pagham Harbour, on the salt marsh behind Church Norton beach. Salt marsh definition- the vegetation (usually dominated by flowering plants) that occurs on muddy shores between approximately mean high water neap and extreme high water spring tides. Possible salt marsh vegetation- Armeria maritima (Thrift), Aster tripolium (Sea aster), Atriplex hastata (Orache), Atriplex (Halimione) portulacoides (Sea purslane), Bostrychia scorpioides (Red alga), Cochlearia spp. (Scurvy grass), Festuca rubra (Red fescue grass), Glaux maritima (Sea milkwort), Limonium humile (Sea lavender), Plantago maritima (Sea plantain), Puccinellia maritima (Saltmarsh grass), Salicornia spp. (Glasswort), Spartina spp. ...read more.

Middle

This will eventually lead to the climax community. Measuring Periwinkle population- Capture-recapture- 1) Quadrats placed on the ground to mark 1m2 area 2) Marked the area distinctly with rocks at corners and bamboo cane at centre so it could be located later 3) Systematically check each square for periwinkles 4) As each periwinkle is identified record number and mark it so you later identify it as marked but not so it will draw the attention of predators unnaturally altering the periwinkle population 5) Return each periwinkle to the location it was found in 6) Remove quadrats and leave area for an appropriate length of time (periwinkles move slowly therefore hours) 7) Return to site and lay quadrats 8) Once again systematically check each square 9) Record each periwinkle found and number that are marked 10) Return each periwinkle to their original location 11) Perform equation to gain an estimate for the population of periwinkles per m2 East Head Sand dune East head is a sand dune spit at the eastern side of the entrance to Chichester harbour. It is an SSSI and a Ramsar site. ...read more.

Conclusion

This leads to a stable or fixed dune community and the biodiversity increases as the abiotic factors that were so extreme in the mobile dunes improve. Nutrient status of the 'soil' improves and the impact of salt spray and wind scour decrease. The nature of the fixed dune community is extremely variable depending on the pH of the substrate and activities of grazing animals, especially rabbits. A dune slack may be created when a blow-out (a damaged area of dune knocked back to bare sand by a combination of erosion and strong wind) takes the sand below the level of the water table. If the dune slack is old enough then the community may develop to scrub, there is some evidence for this at East head as small trees and brambles are growing, usually willow (Salix spp.), with moisture loving associates such as marsh pennywort (Hydrocotyle vulgaris), marsh orchids and various rushes and sedges. Experiment- At east head we took a dune profile and at each site, very 10m apart measured the abiotic factors, air and soil temp, wind speed at ground level, light intensity and moisture at each site. Biotic factors, the percentage of ground coverage by different plants. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    An Investigation into the Mitotic Nuclear Division of Allium Sativum Root Tip Cells, and ...

    5 star(s)

    Again, in accordance with the cytological and energetic trend shown by the number of cells observed at the other stages of mitotic nuclear division, the number of cells (and hence the phase duration) of Telophase is due to the range and requirements of biological events that occur within the cell at this point in the division process.

  2. Peer reviewed

    An Investigation into the effect of caffeine on reaction times

    5 star(s)

    -9.0372 -26.2669 CE 0.1902 0.1844 0.1996 0.2756 0.2042 0.2240 -3.0494 4.9422 44.9001 7.3607 17.7708 CF 0.1992 0.1990 0.1996 0.1746 0.2148 0.2004 0.2130 -0.1004 0.2008 -12.3494 7.8313 0.6024 6.9277 FB 0.2246 0.1634 0.2132 0.2498 0.1742 0.1880 0.1876 -27.2484 -5.0757 11.2199 -22.4399 -16.2956 -16.4737 GS 0.2244 0.2380 0.2378 0.1868 0.2242 0.2330 0.1996

  1. Investigate how the height to width ratio of Limpets varies with distance from sea

    References: (1) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Limpet (2) http://www.pznow.co.uk/marine/limpets.html (3) http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/blueplanet/factfiles/molluscs/limpet _bg.shtml (4) Complete British Wildlife, Paul Sterry, published 1997, page 19 and 208. (5) http://www.archive.official-documents.co.uk/document/seeec/impact/seeec-1.htm (6) Pratical Statistics for Field Biology, second edition, Jim Fowler, Lou Cohen, Phil Jarvis, published 1998, page 138 and 238.

  2. Free essay

    Outline the impact on the evolution of plants and animals of: ...

    for divergent and convergent evolution: Natural Selection: * Natural Selection states that those organisms which have characteristics that best suit them to their environment will survive, reproduce and pass some of those characteristics onto their offspring. * There are variations within every population of species.

  1. Investigating the effect of trampling on salt marsh

    Page 26-28, 56. * Field Studies Council (FSC). http://www.theseashore.org.uk/index.html. * RSPB Freiston Shore Page. http://www.rspb.org.uk/reserves/guide/f/freistonshore/index.asp. PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTING- Null hypothesis- 'Trampling has no effect on the salt marsh vegetation. The species diversity, population density and types of species found are not affected.' My hypothesis and prediction- 'Trampling has an effect on the salt marsh vegetation.

  2. An Investigation into the effect of flow rate on the size of Gammarus pulex

    They are intolerant of polluted water and reduced dissolved oxygen concentrations. The shrimps are detrivores, organisms that feed on dead and decomposing animal and plant material. The figure above shows their position in the food web for a stream community.

  1. Investigating the colour variation of Littorina littoralis and their abundance across the upper, middle ...

    Having a slightly better chance of surviving leads to an increased chance of reproduction. This means that the desirable phenotype should be passed down to future generations, which should then show the same desirable phenotype and have the same increased chances of survival.

  2. Colour variation in Littorina littoralis on the upper, middle and lower zones of a ...

    In any environment, organisms will struggle to survive, and compete for resources. Competition between a single species is referred to as intraspecific competition. Competition between different species is called interspecific competition, and this type of competition will affects the population distribution of a species.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work