• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13
  14. 14
    14
  15. 15
    15
  16. 16
    16
  17. 17
    17
  18. 18
    18

Investigating the effect of trampling on salt marsh

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

A2 BIOLOGY COURSEWORK Investigating the effect of trampling on salt marsh vegetation? RESEARCH AND RATIONALE- The saltmarsh I used for my experiments (sample taking) was the RSPB (Royal Society for Protection of Birds) reserve of Freiston Shore. 1 Aim of the investigation- I am aiming to compare three different aspects when investigating the effect of trampling on salt marsh vegetation. * Population density * Species diversity * Types of species found Two areas in close vicinity will be compared; one area is non-trampled (Area 1) and the other trampled (Area 2). Justification for the investigation- I was interested in the affect humans have on different environments, how they interfere as anthroprogenic factor. In the context of this experiment they can be classed as biotic factors. People explore the marsh in wellington boots this tramples some areas heavily and greatly irritates plant life. This can be measured through looking at the population density of the area, one of the aspects I am going to compare. I chose this marsh specifically because it is a RSPB reserve which means it has been protected by government and other organisations for its diversity in wildlife. We have to remember that there are plenty of other animals (that are sustained by plants) involved in a bird's food chain therefore; Freiston shore has a diverse variety. Biology behind the investigation- More detailed diagrams included in the appendix. 2 A sea shore with very little wave action is one of the causes of the development of a salt marsh. Fine particulate material build up (accretion) in these calm conditions. As the density of the material increases, the river has to then split up around these dense areas, this leads to the formation of tidal creeks. As more mass is deposited, halophytes begin to bind the soil with their roots and in this fashion succession continues, the soil gets more compact. ...read more.

Middle

because I did my tests in the high swamp area, where plant life had established itself, the aerobic respiration of these plants would have decreased the salinity of the area, as the plants use the salt. This was also the reason why the salinity was not very high. Any Anomalous Data or Changes to the plan? During my investigation, I was lucky not to come across any anomalous data when recording my results, I think this had added to the accuracy to my statistical analysis. This was because I made slight adjustments to my initial plan eg- * I got a colleague to check my quadrat readings at random points, this was done to improve accuracy and minimise anomalous data. * When doing the slope readings, a colleague held up the ranging poles to make sure they were straight. INTERPRETING AND EVALUATING- Population density- The quadrat data is graphically presented above. The key for the species is in the appendix. Clear percentage differences can be viewed between species C, D, J and N. Also, as I predicted, there is a lot more mud (O) in the trampled area compared to the non-trampled area. Overall mean of all the species (excluding mud (O)- Non-trampled Area Trampled Area Mean 110.67 Mean 84.63 Species diversity- n = total number of particular species n-1 = 1 subtracted from n N = total number of all the species N-1 = 1 subtracted from N This was gained for both the areas through using Simpson's Diversity Index. 0 = no diversity and 1 = infinite diversity. After the index, D is gained (through the method shown above), its then subtracted by 1 (1-D), to give an overall diversity index. Non-trampled Area- n See appendix N 3320 Simpson's Index (D) 0.37 n-1 See appendix N-1 3319 SIMPSONS DIVERSITY INDEX (1-D) 0.63 n(n-1) See appendix N(N-1) 11019080 Trampled Area- n See appendix N 3109 Simpson's Index (D) 0.40 n-1 See appendix N-1 3108 SIMPSONS DIVERSITY INDEX (1-D) 0.60 n(n-1) See appendix N(N-1) ...read more.

Conclusion

N 3320 Salicornia spp. Annual samphire 93 92 8556 N-1 3319 Sarcocornia perennis Perennial samphire 0 -1 0 N(N-1) 11019080 Sueda maritima Annual seablite 368 367 135056 Index (D) 0.37 Aster tripolium Sea aster 455 454 206570 DIVERSITY INDEX (1-D) 0.63 Limonium vulgare Sea lavender 0 -1 0 Triglochin maritima Sea arrow-grass 0 -1 0 Plantago maritimus Sea plantain 0 -1 0 Spergularia spp. Sea spurreys 0 -1 0 Cochleria spp. Scurvy grasses 0 -1 0 Atriplex portulacoides Sea purslane 541 540 292140 Atriplex spp. Oraches 0 -1 0 Spartina anglica Cord grass 0 -1 0 Elytrigia atherica Sea couch grass 0 -1 0 Puccinellia maritima Saltmarsh grass 1863 1862 3468906 Bare Soil 0 -1 0 Sum > 4111228 Trampled Area (Area 2)- Species n n-1 n(n-1) N 3109 Salicornia spp. Annual samphire 107 106 11342 N-1 3108 Sarcocornia perennis Perennial samphire 209 208 43472 N(N-1) 9662772 Sueda maritima Annual seablite 109 108 11772 Index (D) 0.40 Aster tripolium Sea aster 155 154 23870 DIVERSITY INDEX (1-D) 0.60 Limonium vulgare Sea lavender 0 -1 0 Triglochin maritima Sea arrow-grass 0 -1 0 Plantago maritimus Sea plantain 0 -1 0 Spergularia spp. Sea spurreys 0 -1 0 Cochleria spp. Scurvy grasses 0 -1 0 Atriplex portulacoides Sea purslane 97 96 9312 Atriplex spp. Oraches 0 -1 0 Spartina anglica Cord grass 0 -1 0 Elytrigia atherica Sea couch grass 0 -1 0 Puccinellia maritima Saltmarsh grass 1862 1861 3465182 Bare Soil 570 569 324330 Sum > 3889280 Soil Samples- pH readings of the soil- Non-trampled Area Trampled Area Sample 1 Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 3 Sample 4 Sample 4 Sample 5 Sample 5 Mean Mean Salinity readings of the soil- Non-trampled Area Trampled Area Sample 1 Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 3 Sample 4 Sample 4 Sample 5 Sample 5 Mean Mean 1 http://www.rspb.org.uk/reserves/guide/f/freistonshore/map.asp 2 http://www.theseashore.org.uk/theseashore/Saltmarsh%20section/Saltmarsh%20earliest%20stage.html 3 http://www.theseashore.org.uk/theseashore/Saltmarsh%20section/Saltmarsh%20earliest%20stage.html 4 http://www.theseashore.org.uk/theseashore/Saltmarsh%20section/Saltmarsh%20stage%202.html ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity essays

  1. Peer reviewed

    An Investigation into the effect of caffeine on reaction times

    5 star(s)

    memory would probably be worse A smooth curve would not be formed Random Preliminary testing To ensure my method works, I will carry out preliminary tests. I will take the results for six volunteers at a dose of 0mg caffeine, as a reference, then two will take 100mg, two will take 200mg, and two will take 300mg.

  2. Peer reviewed

    Is there a relationship between the girth of a tree trunk and the percentage ...

    4 star(s)

    A sample size of twenty five is likely to give a more reliable and valid result, however. The larger the sample, the more reliable and valid the results will be. Results The raw data collected at the site: Tree Girth of the trunk / m Percentage cover of lichens on

  1. Planning an investigation into salt marsh and sand dune vegetation.

    or on coasts protected by shingle or sand bars or spits or in large bays with narrow entrances. A source of mud is also needed, this can be from the sea or rivers or both. Small pioneer plants will begin to colonise the surface of the mud.

  2. Free essay

    Cloning Reasearch Paper

    It definitely seems as though Clonaid is not ready to give up any time soon. There are sure to be many more years of cloning history to come. We can almost be certain that this science that is a part of our past and present will stick around for our future.

  1. Free essay

    Outline the impact on the evolution of plants and animals of: ...

    * There are variations within every population of species. * Organisms that don't reproduce have their genes removes from the population. * Organisms that survive and reproduce are well suited to their environments. * Favourable variations are passed onto offspring and become common. The Role of Isolation: * For a new species to evolve, groups of organisms need to be isolated from each other.

  2. Biology Coursework: Does Acupuncture relieve pain?

    * Chronic pain affects approximately 25 percent of the U.S. population11 * Almost three-fifths of adults 65 and older with pain in the United States said it had lasted for one year or more.11 * Nearly 1 in

  1. An Investigation into the effect of flow rate on the size of Gammarus pulex

    can deposit while substrate that are too small are carried away by the water. The stony beds of the river are suited for adult shrimps as their legs allow them to cling on to rocks; this would be less possible for muddy substrate.

  2. Investigating the colour variation of Littorina littoralis and their abundance across the upper, middle ...

    Exposure to sunlight and air causes increased rates of evaporation. For the Littorina littoralis, prolonged exposure to these conditions can cause them to dry out, known as desiccation. For this reason, it would be unlikely for any Littorina littoralis to be permanently situated in the upper zone, or indeed for

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work